Monday, September 30, 2019


When young people commit crimes, there are usually reasons behind their behavior and these reasons need to be addressed with care and thoughtfulness and not the severest form of punishment. During the 1990s, several states decided to try juveniles as young as 17 years old as adults, and to use adult-incarceration facilities for those who were convicted. I think that was a negative trend.Young people have a lot happening inside their bodies and minds, this is not to excuse them but it’s a fact. A lot of internal changes are taking place and by that I mean, hormonal changes, bodily changes and mood swings.Apart from major internal physical changes taking place, they also have to deal with peer pressure and behave in a certain way so that they fit in with their friends’ idea of being cool and normal.Researches and studies on the juvenile brain show that teens sent to adult court result in being worse than those who are not. They have a tendency to get in to trouble more of ten and the offenses are more severe. (Patrick, 2005)An Example of the Law Being Too Harsh:Reginald Dwayne Betts was executed at the age of 16 and spent more than eight years in prison, in Virginia for an armed carjacking. He was an honors student who had never been in trouble with the police before; he thought he would either be sent to a juvenile detention center or in an extreme case would receive a suspended sentence. But astonishingly, he was tried as an adult and was originally sentenced to 23 years of imprisonment. (Sharon, 2007)Locked up at the young and tender age of 16, Betts spent 8 years in adult prisons. At such a young and impressionable age, he wasn’t prepared to deal with the horrors and harsh realities of an adult prison. He was quite vulnerable to the happenings around him both physically and emotionally.It was hard for him to get used to being away from home and at the same time to deal with the isolation and stress that comes from being in an adult prison. To make matters worse, violence haunted him day and night; he witnessed other prisoners having their heads split open and getting stabbed. He was exposed to disturbing conditions at a very young age whereas most people would never have to face such incidents in their entire life.Even though Betts served 8 years in prison, he now has a fulfilling career as a writer but he knows that he is an exception and he believes that youngsters who end up in prison usually don’t make it as successful human beings.Another example of a juvenile being tried is Zack, who was recently released after serving 27 months for being involved in the robbery of an Oregon convenience store. His mother says Zack (then 15) was struggling with a bipolar disorder at that time. At present, he’s 17 and although his school was hesitant to welcome him back, he is once again a student there.His mother says that Zack will always be a criminal in the eyes of the society and he still finds it hard to put th e past behind him and it was exceptionally hard for him to find work as a lot of people did not want anything to do with him.Zack’s mother admits that he deserved punishment but probation and counseling would have been better for him rather than serving time in jail (Sharon, 2007)Why Passing Harsher Laws Against Juveniles Is Wrong?An assumption made by legislators in passing harsher laws in order to make it easier to try juveniles as adults, has been that juveniles would be less likely to become involved in criminal behavior if there were tough laws and hence a message would be sent to offenders that crime would not be tolerated. (Brian, 2006)Though, research has proven this assumption wrong. Numerous prominent studies have proved that juveniles tried as adults tend to engage in criminal activities more often, more quickly and more seriously than those tried as juveniles.Fagan (1996) looked at the relapsing to criminal activities rate of eight hundred juveniles. The 15 to 16 year olds were convicted of first degree robbery, second degree robbery or first degree burglary. Half of the cases came from two counties in New York and the other half were from two counties in New Jersey. (Brian, 2006)  Due to New York’s Juvenile Offender Law, all the New York based cases were automatically handled by the criminal court, whereas New Jersey based cases were handled by the juvenile court. A comparison of the cases of both states showed that there were significant differences found in the re-arrest rates of those convicted of robbery.A higher number of robbers from New York were rearrested as compared to the robbers from New Jersey. Furthermore, robbers from New York who were sentenced to incarceration in a criminal court tended to re-offend considerably sooner than those from New Jersey who were sentenced to incarceration in juvenile court.A research, Podkopacz & Feld (1996); carried out a comparison of recidivism rates for offenders from Hennepin County, Minnesota that had had their cases referred for possible transfer to criminal court from 1986 to 1992. They finding outs were that those offenders who were tried as adults had a considerably higher recidivism rate (58 %) than those offenders who were tried in a juvenile court (42 percent). (Brian, 2006)Therefore, this shows that if juveniles are convicted as adults and face adult punishments, then they feel alienated from the society and their connection with the community over all weakens and this leads them to relapse to criminal activities once they have served their time in prison Also possible juveniles tried as adults are more likely to view criminal court proceedings as unfair and unjust and hence they relapse to criminal activities to rebel or avenge the unfairness.Researches have also found that those tried as juveniles generally had a positive view of the juvenile court. They were happy with the overall treatment of the judges towards them since they sincerely seemed to ca re about their well being.In addition, the majority of the people interviewed for the research   saw the juvenile court proceedings as fair and only a very few saw the juvenile court proceeding as unjust.Majority of the offenders who were tried for the criminal court believed that the judges they faced didn’t seem to care much about them nor about their problems.They complained that the court proceedings were formal and rushed and quite a lot of them reported difficulty in understanding the legal terminology that was used in the court proceedings. Many that were tried for the criminal court thought that the criminal court’s process sent a strong message that the offenders were of very little importance.Research has also shown that juveniles held in adult prisons were one and a half times as likely to be assaulted with a weapon and five times more likely to be sexually assaulted as compared to the inmates held in juvenile facilities.An earlier research by Flaherty (19 80) showed that the suicide rate of juveniles held in adult jails was 7.7 times higher than the suicide rate of juveniles held in juvenile detention centers and if you compare it with the normal youth population than its 4.6 times higher. (Brian, 2006)Effective Ways of Dealing with Juvenile Offenders:To combat juvenile crimes/offences, judges and courts need to understand what provoked the juveniles to commit such offences in the first place.The best way to deal with them is gently and in order to improve their over all behavior gentler punishments should be given and not harsh, adult punishments, as the juveniles are in the process of growing up and aren’t full grown adults hence they need to be dealt with gently but firmly to eradicate their wrong habits for once and all.Judges like Michael Corriero, who is based in New York, are well aware of how adult treatment of juvenile offences affects most of the juveniles. He supervises a special court by the name of Manhattan Youth Part and resolves cases of juveniles that belong to the ages 13-15 and have been tried as adults for serious crimes. He tries to steer as many as possible away from the criminal court. (Sharon 2007)According to his ideology, a youth’s character is flexible. Kids in their early teens (13-15) are supposed to learn from their mistakes. If we lock them up, what will they become in 10 years time? They won’t possess any special skills. And nothing can be expected of kids that have been put in to adult prisons therefore have been criminalized before their time.65% of the cases he handles are either sent for counseling or other such alternative programs, most of those programs are private and if the kids succeed, their records are sealed. Only the kids that commit major offences are tried in criminal courts (Sharon 2007)Although these treatment programs are very expensive, but they are worth every penny as if you correct a juvenile in a juvenile justice program then the socie ty will have less adult criminals.Therefore it’s essential to see what kind of crimes or mistakes the youth are committing and to treat them accordingly. In cases such as minor shoplifting or joy riding the juvenile should be counseled and should not be given the same punishment as an adult. Since the youth may have committed that particular crime due to immense peer pressure.Although juvenile crimes make most of us think of gangs, rape and murder; violent teens are the exception. Whereas in reality, according to various studies, violent teens only makeup 5% of all juvenile arrests.The more common reasons for prosecuting juveniles in adult courts are drugs, burglary, theft, taking cars for joy ride (Sharon Cohen, N.D. in an adult jail increases a child's risk of being exposed to sexual abuse and assault. Educational opportunities are usually very limited and inadequate.Juveniles that Commit Major Offences: The other side of the picture is that some prosecutors argue about kids that are too dangerous to be considered juveniles as if tried as a juvenile, they maybe freed of all sorts of charges and imprisonment as soon as they turn 21. (Sharon 2007)An example of such dangerous juveniles will be Matthew Niedere and Clayton Keister, who murdered Niedere's parents in cold blood.The murder was planned carefully by the 17 year olds. Niedere’s father was shot five times and his mother four times by him. Keister shot Patricia Niedere, when she ran outside the family store, calling out for help. The two 17 years olds were prosecuted as adults and rightly so. In such extreme cases, where youth nearing adulthood have committed cold blooded murders, they should be punished severely. (Sharon 2007)Conclusion:To conclude, I’d like to say that juveniles for mild and petty crimes should not be prosecuted as adults. As in the case of being convicted, they suffer from poor conditions, horre ndous health care to inappropriate lock-ups and very few efforts to help them (youth) re-enter society.Furthermore they are exposed to sexual abuse and forced to grow up before their time and may face psychological problems later on their life, due to exposure to brutal activities such as stabbings, or even murders taking place in the prisons.Once these juveniles serve their time in the jail and are released, it’s also hard for them to re-enter the society and be acceptable by the rest of the society. They would always have that tag attached with them that they once committed a crime and went to prison for it.Therefore for minor crimes, its better to have them counseled or to assign them certain hours of community service, as their minds and personalities are still being shaped and hence its better to correct them by allowing them to ponder over their mistakes and to make them serve the society through community service in order to have them realize their mistakes.ReferencesB rian E. Oliver, ‘Does Trying Juveniles as Adults Work?’ An Analysis of the Evidence, June 2006 Accessed March 14, 2008Juvenile crime statistics, Accessed March 14, 2008 Juvenile justice system, Accessed March 14, 2008Patrick Boyle (2005). Articles Section of Perspectives on Youth, Accessed March 14, 2008Sharon Cohen (2007). Prosecuting kids as adults: Some states ponder changes Accessed March 14, 2008

Lawmaking by executive order: an analysis of a movement tending to destroy American constitutional government and to set up an executive autocracy Essay

Executive Order Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Executive Order is a lawfully mandatory order given by the acting President since he is the head of the Executive Branch ordering (FAA) Federal Administrative Agencies. An Executive Order is generally applied to control officials and federal agencies in their implementation of congressionally recognized policies or laws. However, in many occurrences they have been applied to direct agencies in ways opposing to congressional intent but not all executive orders are formed equal. Some of executive orders may deal with defense or security issues while others may be normally symbolic or ceremonial. Congressional approval is not a must requirement in order to for an Executive order to be effected because it have the alike legal burden as laws approved by Congress. Examples of executive orders include proclamations, national security directives and presidential decision directives.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Executive orders have been applied by every main executive since the reign of George Washington in 1789. Every president starting with George Washington have delivered orders which can be referred as executive orders although they did not formally indicated by name. Most of these orders were not published and were only comprehended and discussed by the agencies which were concerned. George Washington’s first executive order stated that â€Å"United   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   States was going to remain neutral in the war between Great Britain and France. In the early era of 1900s, Department in the State started numbering those orders and the numbering system we apply today when considering a specific order was not prepared until far ahead.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Those orders were retroactively numbered starting from year 1862 when President Abraham Lincoln issued the â€Å"emancipation proclamation† by executive order and by now there are more than thirteen thousands orders which have been numbered. However, there are still some orders which have not been listed because of bad record keeping but that is not a problem today since all upcoming executive orders are accessed easily. Since the decision of Supreme Court in 1952, every president has also made sure to mention which precise laws they are performing under whenever they are delivering the executive order. Numerous significant policy modifications have happened through Executive orders although the President cannot use apply executive orders to create laws, the orders can still have a very extensive consequence.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For example President Truman delivered an executive order to incorporate the armed forces, while President Eisenhower delivered an executive order to incorporate all public schools. Another executive order #9066 was given out by President Roosevelt to affirm definite areas zones for military, but soon it was applied for the transfer of Japanese-Americans to captivity camps in the course of World War II and claimed it that he had power under his military authority. President Kennedy and President Johnson applied them to promote racial segregation in federal contracting, appointment and housing. President Bill Clinton overturned the executive order which has been issued by President Reagan about promoting use of federal funds to support abortion. However, conflict aroused during the reign of President Clinton because in his more than 300 executive orders he was not consulting the Republican Congress.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Recently, President Barrack Obama have received a lot of criticism from Republicans due to signing numerous executive orders to postpone certain there has been criticism from Republicans as President Obama has signed numerous executive orders to postponement certain sections of the â€Å"(ACA) Affordable Care Act†, although the law have not specified the authority of the president to do that. The claim of Republican is that the president is â€Å"selecting† which sections of the law to obey and which one to disobey. In all terms considered executive orders cannot interject the laws approved by Congress or the duties deputized to the Executive Branch. However, executive orders tracks against the common section of the Constitution that states â€Å"No one should have power to act disjointedly†. In contrast, Congress often provides the President substantial freedom in administering and implementing federal law. Sometimes, the Congress cannot approve precisely how to implement a law therefore this abandons the conclusion to all federal agencies concerned and the President in the power.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When congress flops to comprehend out deeply on how an act is to be implemented, the President can provide those parts in detail but in the custom of Executive Orders. The main purpose of executive orders was to strengthen the right or duty of a President to produce an order, verdict, or declaration to convey out a precise power that actually committed to his preference by the Constitution or by congress approval of a lawful statute. The President is supposed to take care that the laws be loyally executed because Executive Orders were never planned to offer a President the power to go from one place to another in Congress to enact legislation. For example if the police are aiming suspects in a certain area where gang hitting is dominant, the President can order them to go after those gang wrecks by an Executive Order because he is the chief law enforcement officer but has to adhere to the written law.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The white house and the Presidency has evolved over time, and is not the same as it was years ago. Since George Washington took over office, many presidents have taken office, with the most recent being the historic Barrack Obama who has made over nine hundred executive orders so far. It is important to put time into consideration as we seek to compare the many presidents the United States of America has had as we examine their executive orders made. In this paper, I am seeking to examine the executive office especially on presidents who faced very starkly times at the white house. Among rhetoric and administrative powers, the president possesses legislative powers which are exhibited by making of executive orders as it has been the case with many presidents.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Initially, the white house lacked guidelines to follow when setting these executive orders, until in 1952 when president Truman decided to make an executive order no. 10340 that was rendered null and invalid because it was making a law without congress, instead of extending it as should have been the case. After the ruling, previous presidents have been citing existing laws when making these orders to avoid unconstitutionality of any of these orders. This paper examines some of those orders issued, with most of them having been made during the tenure of President Roosevelt. The largest amounts of executive orders were issued between Truman’s era and Roosevelt’s era. The most executive orders have been issued during the reigns of the presidents that have been known and termed as strong. These have come under tenures when America was at war like in Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt. Mostly, presidents have issued them in ti mes when they need to act in ways not allowed for by the constitution. There have been more conservative presidents like Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Hebert Hoover who had the belief that they were strictly limited by the constitution.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Currently, President Barrack Obama has made executive orders that have seen even congress men rally behind to impeach him as well as filing lawsuits. Last year (2013), the president passed twenty-three executive orders as part of his war against guns, and recently, in a public address he issued an executive order that saw the increment in salaries for some workers under the federal government. Currently, an executive order is seeking to fight for a debate in the enactment of a new immigration law. The current president has threatened to use these orders to pass key policies if congress fails to act imminently.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to Clancy (1996), several implications for the adoption of presidential orders have been evident, with Obama ensuring that immigrants are getting proper treatment even when deportation has been necessitated. President Bill Clinton ensured the conservation of some American rivers which were taken as American Heritage. ‘Obamacare’ has seen the current president pass over nine hundred executive orders, which he has said are all in ensuring better lives for the American people and improving life standards for American families. This has been evident especially with the pay increments for example of these initiatives to boost the lives of Americans. Gun policies have also been enacted through his executive orders, giving a sense of security back to notorious streets that have seen an increase in the number of gun owners: most of which are illegal. References American Liberty League (ALL). 1935. Lawmaking by executive order: an analysis of a movement tending to destroy American constitutional government and to set up an executive autocracy. Washington, D.C.: American Liberty League. Clancy, T. (1996). Executive orders. New York, N.Y: Berkley Books. Great Britain. 2008. Draft Legislative Reform (Health and Safety Executive) Order 2008: report, together with formal minutes and written evidence. London: TSO. McNamara, Carol, and Melanie M. Marlowe. 2012. The Obama presidency in the constitutional order: a first look. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield. Smith, V. Kerry. 1984. Environmental policy under Reagan’s executive order: the role of benefit-cost analysis. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Source document

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Food Ins. Essay

1. If animals should have certain rights, do you think those rights also apply to animals we raise for food, like chickens or pigs? Are there any rights that these farm animals should have? If so, what are they? One animal does not have greater importance over another, such as one human is not more life worthy than another. In this case to say certain animals should have rights whereas others should not is wrong. So yes a dog and a chicken should have rights and the same rights. The more difficult question is what exactly these rights should be. It is reasonable to try to prevent the most obvious cases of gratuitous suffering or torture of animals, but beyond that, non-human animals yes deserve to be given â€Å"rights†, but cannot simply be granted. The animals are treated like scum, kept in the dark with no concept of an outside world. Some rights they should be graced with are the right to the outdoors, and the right to roam. 2. How do you think farm animals should be treated? How do your ideas compare to what you saw in the film? It seems as if each industry in the film has the power to define cruelty. This is as ridiculous as giving a burglar the power to determine their punishment. Why these industries are not charged with aggravated cruelty to animals is something I cannot understand. Is it not the same to kick a dog or kick a chicken with the same anger? 3. Richard Lobb of the National Chicken Council says in the film, â€Å"In a way, we’re not producing chickens, we’re producing food. † What does this statement mean? Do you agree or disagree with it? How might this perspective affect the way that chickens are raised? 4. Many of us were surprised to learn that corn is so prevalent in our foods. Why do you think we were so surprised? Of course people are surprised to find out corn is so prevalent because the problem is it’s not even just in foods! When there is some kind of soy or corn in batteries, diapers, Motrin, charcoal, etc. you know there is a big problem. 5. Do you think the government and food producers have kept it a secret? Why don’t more people know this fact? This unfortunately is not something you can blame on the food producers; it’s simply the consumers fault for not looking at the ingredients on a food label. I believe people do not know the facts due to ignorance and laziness. Bottom line is if people realize what is in their food they will have to make a change which is usually not cost effective and more time consuming which these days is very undesirable. 6. Food labels actually do list corn-based ingredients, but not always in a recognizable way. How do you feel about ingredients being included in your diet without your knowledge? If you have a question about something, isn’t it common knowledge to ask about it. Google these days tells you everything you want to know and more so people can easily read the ingredients and research a word unknown to them.

Friday, September 27, 2019

United States women's wages and the wage gap as compared to their male Essay

United States women's wages and the wage gap as compared to their male counterpart - Essay Example The term ‘equality’ seems to be deterring from women even in the 21st century. The period when women are taking giant strides towards successful career and achieving global heights, the demon of equal pay rights and equality at workplace still haunts.Federal government confirmed the earning gap persistent between men and women despite various laws and amendments made by the government (Longley, ‘Why Women Still Make Less than Men’). Despite some dramatic reductions in the male-female pay gap since the 1950’s gender differentials persist in all industrialized nations (Blau and Kahn, 533). Both gender specific factors like gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. The large gender pay gap in the United States compared to other advanced countries seems primarily attributable to the very high level of U.S. wage inequality (Blau and Kahn). According to Goldin, the ratio of female to male earnings among full time workers was roughly constant from the 1950s to the early 1980s and the segregation of occupation of sex is substantial and has declined only slightly across the last century (Burstein, 17). According to the American Women, a report prepared by Commission on the Status of Women; the role for women ‘most generally approved by counselors, parents and friends is the making of a home, the rearing of children and the transmission of them in their earliest years of the values of the American heritage. It should be noted that during that period only 10 percent of families were headed by unmarried women and most of the women’s job were in ‘low paid categories’ such as clerical work which is still existent even today as shown in Table 1. However the time is changing rapidly as Shiver reported that in 2009, half of the U.S. workers are female and mothers have become t he primary breadwinners in 4 out of 10 families (A Women’s Nation). However the fact remains that there is large gap in wages between men and women as the gap had widened during 2007 and 2008 as women’s weekly earning on an average was $657 as compared to $819 for men (It’s time for working women to earn equal pay’). Basing on the facts and figures mentioned above, this paper attempts to present analytical discussion on United States’ women wages and wage gap differences as compared to men at workplace. 2. U.S. Women Employment and Wages Figart, Mutari and Power (3) stated that women have been always working which was essential in providing food, clothing and shelter throughout history and across cultures. It took decades before the women first occupied place among the men. Today, women represent nearly half of the U.S. workforce wherein the United States total workforce consisted of 72% men and 58% women in 2010. The labor force participation for women increased from about 33 percent in 1950 to 61 percent in 1999 but has remained less active and spent fewer weeks in the labor force as compared to men (US Dept. of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, 28). According to report ‘Worlds Women 2010’, 90% of the women’s workforce was employed in service sector while only 9% in industry sector and 1% in agricultural sector. The data (Table 1) reveals that there is demand of women in service sector as only 68% men are employed within the sector. Table 1: Distribution of Employment in Developed Countries Source: World’s Women 2010, United Nations (COR) The domination of women in service sector was the result of increasing representation of women among the ranks of managers in organizations in the U.S. which was considered as a dramatic shift in the sex composition of an occupation since clerical work became a female dominated field in the late nineteenth century (Jacobs, 282). It is evident fro m the above data that women are equally contributing to nations GDP as

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Paper on TQM in International Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

Paper on TQM in International Business - Essay Example The Sea-View Wing houses The Club at The Leela and is perched on a cliff overlooking the sea (Leela Hotels, 2010). Hotel Leela Kempenski, Kerala offers traditional Indian hospitality and embraced by the grandeur of modern luxuries. It offers luxury accommodation and delicious food and beverage along with outdoor swimming pools and fitness center to its guests. Due to its location between two scenic beaches, Hotel Leela Kempenski provides its guests with an extremely pleasurable experience. Its state of the art business facilities; plush accommodation, fine dining experience and hospitable services make it one of the most sought after Luxury Hotel in Kovalam (Leela Hotels, 2010). The Leela Kempenski Hotel, Kovalam is considered to be one of the finest business hotels in Kerala. The convention center can accommodate about 1000 delegates and other smaller conference rooms have a seating capacity of 30 to 100. All the conference rooms are equipped with top quality audio-visual facility (Leela Hotels, 2010). Dining at the Leela Kempenski Hotel, Kovalam is an elaborate affair. The presentation, which is as important as the quality, is extremely extravagant. The restaurants and bar are at par with international standards and offer delicious food and beverages at several eateries in the hotel. Leela Kempenski Hotel, Kovalam offers its guests with recreational facilities that help them relax and enhance their pleasurable experience. The Hotel also offers its guests with an information desk that provides them information regarding all the services being offered. The core focus of Leela Kempenski Hotel’s policies is to deliver ultimate value to the customers. It has established a Customer Relationship Management system which offers customized services to the guests thus resulting in customer retention and loyalty. This is done by offering customers with exclusive dining services, world-class

Head Start Early Education Program Annotated Bibliography

Head Start Early Education Program - Annotated Bibliography Example Educational development is both a short-and long-term goal. As noted by Sciarra et al. (2015), the program serves the at-risk preschool-age children. To ensure its continuity, funds are provided by the federal government through the U.S Department of Health and Human Services. The transition from preschool to elementary school results in varied changes in the development of the child such as the need for children to engage successfully with their peers outside the home and adjust the space and requirements of the classroom. To that effect, the McWayne et al (2012) discuss how the Head Start Early Education Program is designed to develop strong family relationships, improve the children’s educational performance, and design an environment to develop strong cognitive skills. Deming (2009) asserts that the Head Start Educational program is among the longest-running programs in America that attempt to address systematic poverty and improve educational performance. It is equally important to note that the ABCD Head Start program is at the forefront of cutting-edge work in early education. The program helps the children develop their brain (Action for Boston Community Development, 2015). Lee (2011) illustrates the effect of the duration of Head Start enrollment on the academic outcomes of children. The study reported that the program improved performance. Furthermore, the article by Besharov and Call (2009) critique the program outlining its weaknesses. The article provided crucial information on elements of the policy that require reform. Lee, K. (2011). "Impacts of the duration of Head Start enrollment on childrens academic outcomes: Moderation effects of family risk factors and earlier outcomes." Journal of Community Psychology 39 (6),

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

News Article Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

News Article - Assignment Example The reproductive system of both sexes is biochemically and anatomically formed in a way that they have the ability to produce new life to ensure perpetuation of life. It is unique that, among all the body systems the reproductive system is the only body system which an individual may decide not to use to the fullest. Some individuals do not reproduce due their own personal reasons. When sperms are produced by the penis and deposited in the vagina, they travel to the fallopian tubes. Through conception process one of them fuses with the ovum forming one single cell. At this stage the sex of the individual is determined and the baby possesses all the genetic requirements. The 46 chromosomes that the baby receives from both parents will be with the individual for the whole of his/ her lifetime. No genetic addition will take place but more significantly nutrition and oxygen will be required for life to be sustained. Development of the baby in the mother’s womb takes place in three trimesters. In the first trimester, dramatic and dynamic takes place. In trimester two, the baby prepares for survival outside the womb and in the third and last trimester, the baby develops the body organs and system and gains weight. The main purpose of the reproductive system is procreation and this is done by giving birth to young ones. For fertilization to take place the sperm and the ovum from the male and the female respectively must unite. Immediately conception takes place development starts and it takes place in three trimesters. The baby gets all the chromosomes from both parents and that is the number of chromosomes that an individual possesses in the whole of his or her lifetime. I learnt that the reproductive system is very significant in procreation. Creation of new beings occurs after fusion of the sperm and ova. in the developmental phases

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Chilhoodhood obesity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Chilhoodhood obesity - Essay Example When it comes to â€Å"Raising Healthy Children† (Purcell 46) parents must educate themselves about childhood obesity. Information on proper nutrition is given to parents, in some cases, at their childs first doctor visit. Parents are often shown the food pyramid as a guideline for healthy eating, and regular exercise is also recommended. Parents should limit buying prepackaged food because of their high sodium and sugar content, but instead should give a variety of fruits, vegetables, and as part of their child’s daily diet to supplement an active lifestyle. Children should be encouraged to try several healthy foods at dinner. Limiting and/or eliminating fast food from a child’s diet will help decrease the amount of unhealthy fat and sodium that are going into a child’s body. Portion control is also important in maintaining a healthy diet. Reducing beverages with high concentrations of sugar (Clabaugh, Neuberger 34.3) is also necessary in preventing child hood diabetes. Eating unhealthy foods and not maintaining an active lifestyle can lead to childhood obesity that can manifest itself as a broad range of medical disorders in the future. Children learn mostly through observational learning. Parents must eat healthy and exercise and the children will follow. Parents can start by having available fresh fruit that can be eaten year-round and eat health snacks. Interactive activity with their children can also lead to a positive self-image as well as a healthy lifestyle. Parents can refer to studies like (The Lifestyle Behavior Checklist:Morawska and Joughin.36.4) to see if their adequately reducing their childs risk of childhood obesity. Since childhood obesity has increased at an alarming rate, physicians are asking, â€Å"Do parents recognize this health risk?† (Etelson, Donald, Patrick, Brand and Anushree Shirali 1362). Children are likely to develop bad eating habits because they are exposed to them as children.

Monday, September 23, 2019

NEW HAIR PRODUCT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

NEW HAIR PRODUCT - Essay Example Marketing strategy. Initially ARG Hairs Group wanted Hair Softe to be carried by supermarkets in UK and Ireland. ARG Hairs Group also plans to open a company website wherein prospective customers can order the product on line. A separate study on the marketing strategy is being prepared to initialize the campaign. Production capability. Hair Softe Shampoo is a commodity item that is saleable for both men and women, and a target of 24,000 ml units of shampoo monthly could easily be sold in the UK market. It has a production capacity of 1,000 ml. units per day, but has the capability to increase future production. Investment plan. An investment of $150,000 and equity capital of ARG Hairs Group are needed to launch the product in the market. Owners’ capital is $65,000.00 while investors will have to provide $150,000 in form of stock equity. 1. The return on the equity of the owner is 9% on the first year of operation. The 9% return on investment is higher than the prevailing bank rate of interest in UK which is 0.5%. UK interest rate is expected to remain at the recent level because of the government’s monetary policy. (Bank of England, 2011) Monetary Policy Decisions. ( 2. The cash flow statement of the company prepared for a 12 month operation shows that for the first three months there is a shortage of cash inflow to sustain all the expenses of the company and there is a need for an outside financing for its day to day operations because of capital expenses during these months. Thereafter, after March, company will have available cash to pay for its loan obligations, taxes and interest and to pay for equity. The cash flow has been prepared based on the 1,000 ml. units of production per day and operations of 24 days in a month. Sales are expected to increase by 5% a month, and profit is also anticipated along the operations. The cash flow statement present all the cash expected to be

Sunday, September 22, 2019


Freedom of Speech Essay Originally rap music has been around since 1926 and was not as popular back then as it is now. Teenagers to adults listen to an average of two point five (2.5) maybe three (3) hours of music per day. Study shown in 1 of 3 of the songs played contains explicit language and reference to drugs alcohol or women. Ice Cube’s album entitled ‘Death Certificate’ sends messages that bluntly and descriptively threatens violence against homosexuals, women, whites who exploit blacks, whites who covet black women, Korean shopkeepers and police officers. Jon Pareles who wrote the article, ‘Should Ice Cube Voice be Chilled? ’argues from several different point of views on why Cube’s album should not be sold. The article also argues that his voice should be chilled because of violent lyrics and threats towards which it addresses. Jon Pareles made his argument by simply using different responses and groups to show why the album should not be sold and should be edited. For example, the Simon Wiesenthal Center is Jewish human rights group who demanded four major record stores chains to cease in selling the album. The called it ‘cultural Molotov cocktail’. After listening to it, the Center realizes how quickly this album is going to explode in the minds and ears of young and old listeners. Another example was ‘Black Korea’ which according to Ice Cube meant Korean shopkeepers who follow the customer throughout the store to ensure they do not steal. This section of the album did not just scratched below the surface but stirred a nationwide boycott. The Korean- American Coalition did not take this lightly, they condemned and deleted it. In an editorial review, a response by James Bernard favored censoring the lyrics because some people are too thin-skinned. Also, Mr. Bernard knew that these types of issue people are force to face on a day to day basis. Why did Ice Cube use such blunt and threatening lyrics? Ice Cube was born and raised in an area polluted with crime, violence and where trust was hidden underground. His inappropriate reactions and vengeance was all towards how he and his people were treated (bullied). Pareles describes this reaction of one that is simplistic and ugly because, this would not eradicate the problem but cause an escalation. The clear message of this album caught enough attention by the media and organizations to determine whether or not ‘Death Certificate’ should be heard at all. The question remains unanswered to curious critics, why are people buying ‘Death Certificate’. Some just savor the action like movie imagery that Ice Cube presents. His gift of violence attracts his listeners to buy the album. Ice Cube lyrics did have some effects on young listeners during the recession; gang involvement disillusioned. However, the majority of the listeners will just play loud music. Jon Pareles produced strong points from many different organizations, groups and individual views on why the album should be terminated. The writer never once critized Ice Cube but spectated his album as a whole. On the other hand, Pareles also agree that although Ice Cube does not have the most positive thinking, he has a right to be heard, but he is going to have to answer and be challenged for his thinking and decisions.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

E Commerce And Online Trading Information Technology Essay

E Commerce And Online Trading Information Technology Essay E-commerce has made a great impact on business activity culture. Customer can shop online in privacy at their own houses. This is also strength small businesses to close their doors, or modify to being completely online. It can also change people approach to look at making purchases decision and spending money. Ecommerce also changed the retailer picture, promotions, services, and other things that make our market work. Undeniably, it will continue to pressure how can companies sell and market their products/services, as well as people choose to make purchases in coming years. Selling through the websites is the best method of increasing trade worldwide. Two forms of e-commerce: First form is mostly used as a business trading where companies mostly meet each other and share information through the World Wide Web. The other form is that, where companies taken orders from the customers through web site and also prepared their order to satisfy their need. HASM have many different types of products and services that are traded or selling online including audio equipments new and used both. All companies who used e-tailing or e-trading definitely have their own websites for their business requirement/needs. Trading online Trading online facilitate businesses to attain larger audiences while also cutting the costs of traditional retailing methods of sales. It is not necessary that a web company have to spend on bigger high street markets for their presence. Although the expenditure on developing a good website is substantial and the potential benefits can be massive. Any group of businesses who is running successful business as a result of the development of the web are ability suppliers of items. Ecommerce Impact On Business Impact of Ecommerce on the economy globally Marketing and Product promotion E-commerce helps the products promotion and services during direct sale, information providing and customerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s connections. Sales channel/path E-commerce creates a new flow channel for existing products. It facilitates direct contact of customers and the bi-directional contact. Cost Reduction/savings The way of delivering information to end customers over the Internet results in major savings to senders when compared with any method. Most savings also realized in delivering digitized products against physical delivery. Cycle time The delivery of products and services can be reduced to minimum time frame. Also, the organizational work related to corporate delivery facility, also across international borders sale can be reduced considerably, cutting the cycle time by more than ninety percent. Customer service approach Customer service can be greatly improved by enable clients to find comprehensive information online. Also, sharp agents can answer standard quarry in seconds and human experts contact can be expedite using automatic software. Business image New customers can create corporate images very quickly. Corporate reflection means expectation, which is very important necessary for direct sales. Marketing Impacts Customization Ecommerce provide for customization of products/services, in response to buying in a store or ordering through television, which is normally limited to standard products only. Advertising Direct marketing and customization is very effective than mass advertisement. This creates a essential changer in which advertisement is conducted to change the existing customer behaviour with product but also for the new customer demands and their behaviour towards products and services. Ordering System Orders recived from customers can considerably be improved if it is happen by online system and through internet. Through electronically, orders can quickly be sent to the appropriate department and place. This saves time and reduces expenses. This can give sales-work force more time to sell the product/services. Also, customers can add the cost of their orders through saving time for all parties involved inthe activity. Markets The physical market disappears because the need to deliver the goods/services to the market. In market space, an electronic place where items are delivered directly to buyers/suppliers when purchase is completed online and making the markets cost effective and efficient. Technology behaviour and Organizational learning behaviour Speedy progress in Ecommerce customers and staff, companies to settle quickly to the new technology and offer customers an opportunity to deal with new products/services such as HASM in new and used audio systems and tools. Changing Work Nature The work nature and employment also be transformed in the computer Age. The computer Age work force should have to become flexible. Few of them consistently have secure jobs in the complex environment and all of work force/staff have to willing and able to frequently learn skills and make decisions, and stand behind in complex environment. New product features Ecommerce allows new products to be formed and existing products to be modified in innovative ways. These changes may be satisfied organizations missions and the way in which they have to survive. Ecommerce can also allow supply the suppliers to collect personalized customers data sheet and buying behaviour. Building customer profiles on the basis ofcollecting data on certain customers group and can be used as a information source for improving products/services or designing new ones. Manufacturing Impact Ecommerce is also changing manufacturing systems from mass production to the demand and supply chain process and also on the need of customers. Finance Impact Ecommerce needs a very special finance and accounting systems. Traditional payment systems, which are ineffective and inefficient for electronic trade, because there is no physical availability/presence of staff. Ecommerce is any type of business activities that is selling and purchasing of products and services carried out over web based systems for the approach of getting far away customers. Advantages and Disadvantage: HASM electronic commerce is also categorized by advantages and inbuilt drawbacks of web. Some of these important advantages and disadvantages are as follows: With the use of fast and rapid scale of internet technology and strong online techniques and software, companies can get many advantages of Ecommerce but also some disadvantages as well but also having a reason of some problems: Advantages: Fast buying and selling method, as well as effortless to find any products type. Buying convenience and selling convenience, round the clock 24/7. Wider reach to customers, there is no geographic limitations for selling product. As compare to the stores low operational costs for product and better quality of services can be provided. Physical company set-ups are not necessary. Undemanding start and manage a business. Business or individual to reach the global market is simple and easy. Electronic commerce gives the customers the chance to look for cheaper and quality products. Ecommerce cuts down the cost attached with marketing once is being launched and working and also on customer care, processing stage, and information storage and inventory management. Disadvantages: Any one, good or bad, can easily set up a business website and there are many bad sites which fool customers. There is no assurance of product quality. There are many internet hackers just waiting for any opportunity and then an ecommerce site, service, payment gateways can cause attack in any business. Mechanical failures can be reason of unpredictable effects on the total processes. Least chance of direct customer to company interactions, and also customer loyalty is always on a test. Perishable items such as foods are also not very convenient and nor predictable due to small life cycle.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Target Corporation

Target Corporation Executive Summary: This report shows an in-depth study of Target Corporation, the accomplishments, and the programs offered, it shows why this is a place where consumers can shop in comfort and security. It also shows a place where people like to shop, and why people like Target Corporation. It goes beyond the cash registers, with a multitude of socioeconomic programs and community outreach endeavors. Target gives back to local communities on a large scale in education and internships for the development of our future leaders and business people. Target offers a workforce and a workplace that embrace diversity, which gives the corporation an economic advantage, which makes them more competitive in this global economy. Although, if you searched for bad comments about a corporation you can find them and this will hold true of any corporate giant. These articles are misleading and should not be taken out of context. We are dealing with the positive aspects of this Corporation that far outweigh the negativ e. So take a trip to your local Target store and see for yourself. Experience the helpful staff, the clean and bright shopping environment, and everything that Target is offering over the competition! The founders vision, for a company that is focused on all of the stakeholders remains clear. Team 1 has concluded that we do in fact like Target very much, and have enjoyed writing this report. Every one of us has formed a positive opinion of the discount chain, although the company is not perfect it does stand out as the best in its class. Other discount stores that compete with our favorite just do not measure up to the same commitment to the quality of the shopping experience. If you compared how the stores are kept and organized Target is always in the lead. Kmart and Wal-Mart may try to beat the pricing, but Target will match prices and always beat them with the overall shopping experience. We hope that this report will give you a better insight into why Target is the leader, from their commitment to the environment and local communities to the generosity shown to the educational system and charitable organizations. In addition, above all else it really is fun, pleasant, clean and economical to shop there. Our report focuses on five major things to consider: * The Business Plan. Their history plays a major factor in their success and we have found this is why it is a sound investment. It is why they are still a growing company worldwide.  · Environmental Concerns and Local Communities: How this company approaches the concerns of our environment is to be admired. As well as, their giving back to education and a multiple of charities is noteworthy.  · Employee Experience: People who work for this innovative entity have stated their overall satisfaction with their jobs. To mirror the community is a diversification goal also.  · Marketing Strategies: A clean, orderly and safe atmosphere coupled with competitively lower prices, and offering their own brands, is their true strategy.  · Advertizing: Top rated commercials, national popular sponsorships, and choice of logo and colors are the core of their advertizing campaigns. Because of these findings, we have concluded that Target is everything we love and more. We recommend that you do your shopping at a local Target store this holiday season, and enjoy your shopping experience as we do. Introduction: Why is Target so successful and why do we like shopping there so much? The purpose of this report is to show the details of positive attributes that this corporate giant has to offer, as individuals, as well as the local communities, the environment, and the world. * What are their economic standings, growth, and investment opportunities? Are they what we are looking for? * Are they a responsible company to the environment and local areas in which they do business? Are they kind to the less fortunate? * How do their employees feel about working there? Is diversity truly a goal and do they mirror their local communities? * When you enter the store do you feel comfortable and safe? Are the prices and products what you want to see? * Are the commercials and sponsorships memorable? Does the Target logo and colors stick with you afterwards? Background: This report is part of our Business Communications Class at College of the Sequoias; our topic (Target Corporation) was first chosen with others by our professor Lucy DeCaro then chosen again by Susan McCormick. All of us on Team 1 voted unanimously to claim Target as our company to research. We wanted to see if Target held up to our impressions we had prior to researching this company. If you have never shopped at a Target store, this might give you a reason to do so. Target is in almost every city in United States and is gaining a foothold in the global market place. Their logos are a household name with good feeling attached to it. Targets integrity is unmatched in the discount franchise market place. Our goal is to show the direct and indirect benefits that Target has to offer. We intend to prove that this store lives up to the advertizing and slogans we have heard and seen for years. We will highlight the key points and attributes of this company to show how even a corporate giant can be a down to earth positive force for our own personnel benefit and the benefit of others. Their Business Plan: The Target Way Target History in Brief In 1902 Dayton Dry Goods was formed in Minneapolis, Minnesota by George D. Dayton. In 1901 George was a banker / real estate investor who became a partner in Good Fellows Dry Goods Company. Within one year, he took over and became the owner / president and renamed Good Fellows Dry Goods. It was then called Dayton Dry Goods for ten years. In 1912 it is renamed The Dayton Company and is more widely known as Dayton Department Stores. In 1916, The Dayton Company starts Retail Research Association (A co-op of retailers) after two years becomes Associated Merchandising Corporation. 1 Target full_report Corporate ResponsibiltyIn 1920, the company faced a freight-handlers strike, which threatened to stop all delivery of merchandise to the stores. Therefore, Daytons decided to use airplanes to deliver the goods to the stores in Minneapolis. The good were in such high demand because of the strike, that the public escorted the planes though the streets to buy the goods thus started a new era of shipping methods. 1938 George D. Dayton dies and his son George N. Dayton takes over. 1950 George N. dies and Donald C. Dayton takes over as president and gradually all the grandsons take top positions in the company, a truly family owned company. In 1956, The Dayton Company spearheads the first fully enclosed shopping mall putting the top retailers in one shopping building. This was to address the sprawling suburbs needs and changed forever the way we shop here in America. 1960 Target is born. It was the innovative thinking that changed the Daytons Department stores into a new discount store chain we now call Target. It was in 1961 that Douglas J. Dayton targets the department stores vast wealth and knowledge to combine fashion, supermarkets, and discount quality into one shopping place. 1962 they debated and came up with Target as the name of the new chain. They also chose the red and white colors and a Bulls Eye as the new logo. â€Å"As a marksmans goal is to hit the center bulls-eye, the new store would do much the same in terms of retail goods, services, commitment to the community, price, value and overall experience.† May 1st 1962 Targets grand opening in Roseville, Minnesota, followed by St Louis Park, Crystal and Duluth, all in Minnesota within the same year. In addition, in 1966 Target starts up outside of Minnesota in Denver, Colorado. Dayton make the transformation complete as it becomes a national retailer and ceases to be the department store chain it once was. The stock goes public on Sept 6, 1967 with five divisions: Daytons Department Stores, Target Stores, B. Dalton Bookseller, Dayton Jewelers and Dayton Development Company. The next year the company defines the Target symbol Icon, The single red dot with one circle around it. ( Target has evolved in many ways, but a century later still adheres to the founders scrupulous sense of ethics, with thoughtful management, well-defined corporate governance, and continuity in leadership, Target sticks with Daytons view of giving back to community. Investing In The Target Way 1. Take Stock in Target Investing in Target Corporation (TGT: NYSE): Is it a good investment today? The stock market is a still quite volatile and with down turn in the economy, or recession, investors should think twice about it. Many of us are still licking our wounds and frustrated with our 401k plans. So, why invest with a company like target? Ockhams rating (as of 10-14-09) for the past ten years show the cash earnings ratio of price to sales per share highest to lowest are 1.13x to 0.72x. What this means is that the price of the stock must produce a certain cash flow ratio compared to the cost of each share. Targets cash earnings are one of the most important things to consider when thinking of investing in the company. (Dividends are not the most important thing, although, it is nice to get a check in the mail for owning a piece of the company.) The real deal is that if the price of the stock has the ability to generate cash earnings. (Does it make money?) This is what we call the P/E price to earnings ratio. As of 10-16-09, the price per share of Target stock is $51.35 and each share earns $2.86 per share per year. The price to earnings ratio is a bit on the high side at 18.10, based on historic values, (the lower the number the better) but still holds a rather firm grip with investors. Ockham also considers the recent economy and its historical ratios of 16.00 and to 10.02. Dividends are another factor to consider but not the biggest by any stretch at $.68 per share per year, meaning a yield of about 1.38% currently. You should also factor in the historical highs of 2.72% and a low of 0.50%. Today the median dividend is only off by about 14.29% of its median, which is not that good or bad. Overall, it is still a good and safe stock market investment today. (Ockham) 2. Economic Responsibility Target maintains the standards of well-defined corporate governance, a strong commitment to ethical operations, and transparent financial disclosure. (Target 43) Corporate governance has been a Target practice for more than fifty years. (Target 45) Target has a passion to create value for the customer, the stockholders, a value for employees, and a value for the communities in which they do business. Strong Corporate governance at Target starts with a Board of Directors that is independent, engaged, committed, and effective. The Board establishes, maintains, and monitors standards and policies for ethics, business practices, and compliance that span the company. Working with management, they set strategic business objectives, ensure that Target has leadership that is dynamic and responsive, track performance, and institute strong financial controls. Target believes in strengthening investor confidence and creating long-term shareholder value, so they can continue to deliver innovations that provide opportunities for customers and the Target Corporation. (Target Report 45) When searching for companies to invest in, character counts. Target has won numerous awards for these things. (Target Report 47) The 2009 Awards  · Target ranked 41st on the list of â€Å"Americas Most Reputable Companies† Forbes * Target ranked one of the â€Å"Worlds Most Ethical Companies† Ethisphere magazine  · Target named one of â€Å"25 Noteworthy Companies for Diversity† Diversity Inc * Target named one of â€Å"Americas Most Shareholder-Friendly Companies† Institutional Investor magazine  · Target named one of â€Å"Americas Most Popular Stores† Forbes * Target recognized as â€Å"Best in Class for Corporate Governance† Governance Metrics International (GMI) * Target ranked 19th of 363 companies on the list of Worlds Most Admired Companies Fortune magazine * Target ranked 11th among the â€Å"Top 100 Employers of the Class of 2009†Black Collegian magazine * Target named one of the â€Å"Best Places to Work for Recent Grads† * Target recognized on Dow Jones Sustainability North America Index Dow Jones * Target ranked 8th on the list of â€Å"Best Places to Launch a Career† Business Week The details of Target Corporation, accomplishments, and the programs offered, show why this is a place where consumers can shop in comfort and security. This report shows a place where people like to shop, and why people like Target. From front end to back end, Target has all the bases covered. Target Corporation goes beyond the cash registers, with a multitude of socioeconomic programs and community outreach endeavors. Target gives back to local communities on a large scale in education and internships for the development of our future leaders and business people. Target offers a workforce and a workplace that embrace diversity, which gives the corporation an economic advantage to be competitive in this global economy. (Target pressroom) Although, if you searched for bad comments about Target you can find them, this is true about any big company. (Complaint board) These are misleading, and should be put to the test. We are dealing with the positive aspects of this Corporation that f ar outweigh the latter statement. So take a trip to your local Target store and see for yourself, the helpful staff, the clean and bright shopping environment, and everything that Target is offering over the competition! The founders vision, for a company, that focuses on all of the stakeholders remains clear. (Target Report) Expanding 1. New Targets have Environmental Concerns It starts with their architecture and storefront design. â€Å"Target Corp. is breaking out of the big-box mold with unique exterior designs for its new and renovated stores.†They are being required by the cities where Target wants to build new stores that they not only are attractive, but also fit the surrounding community themes. They are doing just that in many of the hosting cities by working with Eames Gilmore, senior manager of architecture of store designs for Target. In order to stay profitable the store design and cost must reach a balance between Targets profitability and cities demands. The exterior designs must also reflect the Target image of cleanliness, modern, and upscale merchandise inside the stores. (John Vomhof Jr.) 2. Super Targets The first Super Target opened in Omaha, Nebraska in 1995. 218 Super Target stores have opened in 22 different U.S states. Most of the stores have opened in Texas and Florida. Super Target stores are approximately 175,000 square feet, offering many amenities to its guests, including a bakery, deli, full grocery selection, and fresh produce. Most Super Targets have a Starbucks, and Pizza hut express. Some stores even have a Taco Bell Express, but are currently being phased out. Super Targets also have a Pharmacy, Target Photo, Target Portrait Studio, and some stores also have a U.S Bank or Wells Fargo. Targets goal is to make their stores a one stop shop, to many shoppers. These days time is money, and to be able to do your banking, grocery shopping and pick your prescription up in one stop is just what we are looking for. (Wikipedia) 3. The Target Way Website targetdotcom.jpg 2 Started in 1999 â€Å"† is an enormous and viable part of the corporate entity, started in 1999 it remains a great stronghold to the company profile. They do so well that is rivaled only by Amazon and eBay for new shoppers visiting the site in December, and they growing by an annual 26% increase year after year. They are in the top eleven online retailers for the overall strongest sales. (Internet Retailer) This is very impressive for the online community as Target is an internet and World Wide Web giant. This just proves again that innovation and forward thinking of the marketing strategy is truly one to make an example of. is so well designed that almost anyone can complete their shopping in little to no time at all. It offers many different uses such as finding a local store, viewing the weekly ad, gift registry, photo and pharmacy. The website has many offers for the consumers during the holidays such as free shipping if you spend more than $50 online. You can also purchase a gift for a loved one online and have it shipped directly to your family member. Target also uses its website for employees who can view and print their paychecks as well as sign up for benefits. ( Diversity 1. The Strength of Many the Power of One Our Commitment The strength of many. The Power of One. 3 42% of Target team members are ethnic minorities (vs. 32% across the u.s) 59% of target team members are women (vs. 48% across the u.s.) 4 Target renamed it diversity program â€Å"the strength of many the power of one†. Diversity at Target isnt a program; it is a core value that is integrated into every area of their business. Target takes pride in being a performance based company that gives equal opportunity to all that perform, and boldly defines diversity as individuality. Targets Diversity Statement on Target .com states; â€Å"Individuality may include a wide spectrum of attributes such as personal style, age, race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, language, physical ability, religion, family, citizenship status, socioeconomic circumstances, education and life experiences.† To Target diversity is an attribute that makes an individual unique that does not interfere with effective job performance. Target has also taken steps to extend their domestic partner benefits to straight, gay, and lesbian employees. And has received a score of 86 on the Human Right Campaigns equality index score. Target was also named â€Å"One of the top 100 best companies for working mothers† in 2004. (Wikipedia) 2. Mirror the Community Targets goal is to make sure their employees mirror the diversity of their communities as stated in J. Groves personal communication report (2007). As each employee during their training, usually within the first three months of employment, attend courses teaching them about some of the situations they may be faced with and help them to understand the value of diversity with Target. Some of the classes they attend cover dealing with differences among the employees, effective communication skills, working in a multi cultural workplace, and managing inclusion. It is Targets commitment to diversity, their value of the communities in which their stores are, and the ability to hire employees with the same values that keep Targets arms wide open to diversity. (J. Groves) Environmental Concerns and Local CommunitIES Environmental Responsibilities 1. Plans and Goals Target knows the responsibility it shares in taking care of the environment and being a good steward of our natural resources. With these things in mind, Targets plan is thus: * Minimize their carbon footprint * Use resources responsibly * Eliminate waste * Offer a selection of natural, organic and eco-friendly products * Develop facilities that align environmentally, community and business needs * Influence their vendors and suppliers to embrace sustainable practices (Target Report) 2. Reducing the Carbon Footprint Carbon Footprint, the new buzzwords in corporate talk these days, many corporations build this into their overall marketing plan. A marketing plan is not just advertising and selling the product, it is the entire goal and plan of the company with an insight of how the company will affect all stakeholders. The stakeholder in this instance is the environment. Target has since 1989 been using an energy management system, that optimizes their use of energy. According to testimony given to Congress, the U.S. Green Building Council states that buildings emit 39% of all U.S. CO2 and use 71% of the nations electricity.(USGBC) Targets energy management systems, is centrally located and monitored at the corporate headquarters to enable company-wide energy policy and troubleshooting. Along with the close supervision of energy consumption, Target is now looking at the feasibility of retrofitting stores with on-site energy systems, to include renewable energy such as solar cells (see 5) and fuel cell technology, with a goal to reduce Targets overall carbon footprint. Solar roof panels harness the suns energy at a Los Angeles Target store. 3. Eliminating Waste Post Consumer Products has been a great way Target has been generating revenue. Target maintains programs to recycle, corrugated cardboard, electronics, plastics, mixed paper, aluminum and much more. Target also creates policy for internal actions that are much stricter than the local and regional regulations to ensure compliance, with an eye on protecting the natural resources of our planet. Corporate keeps in mind that any company which does not respect the communities that they do business in, and take a proactive environmental stand, will ultimately fail. Target proves that they understand the power of the court of public opinion. (Target Report 28) 4. Offering a Selection of Natural, Organic and Eco-friendly Products Target Food and Grocery is an organic produce retailer, the USDA certified Target in 2006 and Target now carries more than 700 organic items. Many of the organic items that Target sells, are owned-brand items from Archer Farms © label. They produce milk, cereal, whole-wheat pasta, pizza, applesauce, frozen yogurt, olives, tea, and so many other products. (Target Report 31) The health and beauty selection at Target also maintains environmentally responsible standards. All of the personal care products have not been developed through animal testing, and are free of synthetic materials such as phthalates, sulfates and parabens. These standards of environmentally conscious and consumer minded ideals have made Target an industry leader and innovator in how to conduct responsible business in our communities and throughout the world. (Target Report 31) Target also influences vendors, how they use resources, ethical and product safety standards, and the fair treatment of all employees. Target requires that vendors guarantee that all goods are made in compliance with all relevant laws, both U.S. and the laws of the country in which the goods are produced. This includes the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, which governs how employers pay and treat their employees. To be in compliance with this contract term, the vendors must confirm that their business partners are also in compliance with the law. In addition, they establish similar basic minimum requirements in certain countries where labor laws are not yet well developed. If a vendor violates their agreement, the penalties range from the loss of the contract or order to the loss of all future business with Target. (Target Report) Local Communities and Schools 1. Community Outreach Since 1946 Target has given 5% of income through community grants and programs that support education and the arts and social services. Whether it helps kids read, make art supplies available or offering emergency aid in a time of crisis, Target demonstrates its commitment to its communities in many ways. Some of the ways Target supports the community is through giving red card holders the option to choose which school locally they choose to donate 1% of their purchase to. Also Target celebrates Dr. Seusss birthday yearly with volunteers at each store to read to children. Target also provides seniors with a personal shopper during the holidays and even assists them with free gift wrapping. These are just a few of the great things Target does within their stores. Target focuses its community giving efforts in four key areas: arts, education, social services, and other vital partnerships. Arts: Target supports arts experiences that are family-oriented and affordable, including programs such as art exhibits, free days at museums, classes, performances and those that bring the arts to schools or schoolchildren to the arts. Education: Reading is an essential element of each childs educational process. Target supports programs that promote a love of reading or encourage children to read together with their families. We specifically focus on programs that inspire young readers (birth through 3rd grade). In addition, our Take Charge of Education program is a school fundraising initiative. â€Å"Ready. Sit. Read!† is dedicated to fostering a life-long love of reading in children. The program focuses on children from birth to age nine, and was developed in partnership with the United States Department of Education. â€Å"Ready. Sit. Read!† includes a partnership with the national non-profit organization Reach Out and Read; sponsorship of the Library of Congress Letters about Literature project; monthly childrens crossword puzzles; and sponsorship of book festivals throughout the country. Target also supports United Through Reading, a program to help deployed military members and their children stay connected by videotaping the parent reading a book, sending that video to his/her children, and returning a video to the parent that shows the reaction of the child watching the video of the deployed parent reading. Social Services: Target supports organizations that help build strong communities in which we do business. For example, they support organizations that help prevent family violence such as parenting classes and family counseling. In addition, they also provide assistance for support groups and abuse shelters. Other Vital Partnerships: Target supports communities through numerous volunteer programs and the United Way. We are a partner with the American Red Cross to support immediate and on-going disaster relief and preparedness. Our partnership with United Way is one of the most successful campaigns in retail. In keeping with partnerships around the world, Target considers its stewardship vital to the success of all stakeholders and resources. ( 2. Schools and Education Target supports education with the help of our REDcardsm holders, they have donated more than $260,000,000 to K-12 schools since 1997. Take Charge of Education was launched in 1997 and has contributed to over $260 million to more than 110,000 schools nationwide. Through the Take Charge of Education program, Target donates an amount equal to 1% of REDcardsm (Target Visa and Target Card) purchases made at Target and and 1/2% of Target Visa purchases made elsewhere, to the eligible K-12 school of the cardholders choice. Schools have used these unrestricted funds for everything from student recognition programs and new playground equipment to library books and school musical costumes. An impressive 9 million Target cardholders participate in the program. The Target Corporation will award 5,000 field trip grants of up to $800 each for the coming K-12 school year. Managed by Scholarship America, the Target Field Trip Grants Program is open to education professionals who are at least 18 years old and employed by an accredited K-12 public, private, or charter school in the US with a 501(c)(3) or 509(a)(1) tax-exempt status. Educators, teachers, principals, paraprofessionals, or classified staff of these institutions must be willing to plan and execute a field trip that will provide a demonstrable learning experience for students .Grant funds may be used for visits to art, science, and cultural museums; community service or civics projects; career enrichment opportunities; and other events or activities away from the school facility. Funds may also be used to cover field trip-related costs such as transportation, ticket fees, resource materials, and supplies, (Stephanie Gerding Pam MacKellar TCOE (Take Charge of Education ©): Target assists K-12 schools in generating extra income by providing all the necessary formats. Target provides clip art that allows the school to create personalized material for fundraisers, website banners and flyers for their events. Here is how target helps schools raise money. Targets take Charge of Education Campaign gives the schools links to download. With the following links: * Promotion Letter * Thank-You Letter * Donation Letter * Press Release * Full-Page Flyers (8.5 x 11) * Download a Banner * Clip Art * Website Banners All you have to do is click on the subject you want, highlight, cut and paste and you create the document appropriate for the event. ( Target gives the schools tips for success  · Use your parent newsletter and school website to encourage RED cardholders in your community to enroll in Take Charge of Education. Express your thanks to those parents who have designated your school! * Generate excitement—set a donation goal and share your progress. * Tell the community how much your school received from Take Charge of Education, and how it was used. Talk about how the program is making a difference. * Make it easy for people to designate your school by providing the community with your 5-digit school ID assigned by Target. If you would like to participate in Take Charge of Education but prefer an option that does not involve credit cards, you can choose to promote the Target Check Card. It links directly to an existing checking account, with all of the ongoing rewards of a RED card credit account. ( 3. Charities, The United Way, Salvation Army, Red Cross and The Target House Social Services 6 Target is very active in donation to other local charities such as the United Way. Target has actively supported the United Way since 1962. According to, Target and individual team members donated 13 million dollars in 2008, as well as donating 32,000 volunteer hours as part of the United Way campaign. Target also proudly supports the Salvation Army. In 2008 Target provided 2.42million in direct support of the Salvation Armys mission and programs. Target is also active with the American Red Cross providing relief to flood, fire and tornado victims, Target team members donate time and money on an as needed basis. 7 Since the opening of The Target House in 1999, Target in partnership with St. Judes Hospital provides long term housing for patients and their families during their treatment, all at no cost to the family. Patients are assigned to the Target House if the patients treatment is set to be longer than three months. The Target House features 96 two bedroom apartments, fully furnished. They also provide families with free laundry facilities, a playground, a music room, a gym and a library full of books and movies. The Target house is set up to make families feel at home during their loved ones treatment. To date the Target house has housed 1,290 families from 42 states and 36 countries. ( The Target Employee Is It a Good Job? 1. The Employee Experience

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Growing Up :: essays papers

Growing Up Short story authors use symbolism to describe particular scenes without actually saying the words, which adds to the interest of the story. In Frank O'Connor's story "First Confession" and John Steinbeck's story "The Chrysanthemums", both authors use symbolism to enhance the readers insight of the story. Also, the symbolism offered by the authors provides the reader with a deeper look into the story, making the reader find more interest throughout. In "The Chrysanthemums", Steinbeck uses a betrayal issue as the basis of the story, where O'Connor's "First Confession" uses a religious basis. Even though there is a wide spread in the subjects, a link is created. Wisdom, spirituality, and frustration are all symbols shared by these unrelated topics. "The Chrysanthemums" main character is Elisa Allen. Elisa is married and loves to work in her garden. While working in the garden, a stranger pulls his wagon into Elisa's yard. The stranger manages to con Elisa by speaking of her flowers, which is Elisa's ultimate soft spot. Elisa gives the man some of her prize Chrysanthemums to give to another woman that he knew. While going to dinner with her husband, she notices her beautiful flowers have been carelessly discarded onto the road. This is one of Steinbeck's main symbols. The discarded flowers symbolize Elisa's beauty and femininity. Because Elisa has no children, she believes that her flowers are her children. She takes care of them better than anything she has in her possession does. When the smooth talking stranger disposes of her flowers, he has taken her children away from her. Elisa is also portrayed as venerable. The stranger takes advantage of this venerability by acting like he liked the flowers and was going to deliver t hem to a lady. The Chrysanthemums were Elisa's life and even her entire being on her isolated farm .Not only her trust was broken, but her faith in people and even herself was broken. She put her faith in the stranger and was betrayed. Elisa's garden was consistent with the Garden of Eden. Her flowers were cast out onto the road as God cast out Adam and Eve. Adam and Eve betrayed God, like the stranger betrayed Elisa's trust in him. In Frank O'Connor's "First Confession", a little seven year old boy named Jackie has been scared by a nun's portrayal of confession. Frightened by this inaccurate encounter, Jackie is nervous about making his first confession.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Computers, the Internet, and a Changing World :: Computer Cyberspace Technology Essays

Computers, the Internet, and a Changing World When I think about the world of writing in the year 2003, and compare it to writing, let’s say, in the year 1990, the changes that have evolved are phenomenal. Of course, a person could argue that change is the one constant in life, including people, ideas, and technology, just to name a few. How can you measure and analyze every change that’s occurred in the world, and its cultures? If you tried, you’d likely grow old and die before you could pinpoint every single one. But when it comes to writing and the writers, themselves, in the twenty-first century, no longer are the paper pages of books, magazines, and newspapers the only source of reading. The internet is a dazzling and complicated electronic world, where one human can instantly communicate with another, all with the click of a mouse. Cyberculture has taken us from an earlier world, where we used the pen, pencil, typewriter, and just a computer, to a rapid-fire electronic galaxy, that enables us to use millions of pixels to send messages to the world; the most amazing part of all, is that we can do all this without ever leaving the comfort of our homes. Let’s start at the beginning, before the information superhighway was a part of the global vernacular. Millions of people like to read the newspaper, for a variety of reasons; many, including myself, want to keep up to speed on current events, locally, and around the world. I tend to read The Detroit Free Press, The Ann Arbor News, and occasionally, The New York Times, all good and, for the most part, accurate sources of news. My parents subscribed to all three newspapers for many years, and still do to this day. After I moved out and began living on my own, I would go to the nearest store or newspaper stand to buy a copy, and at times, still do this. However, with the explosion of internet usage, I don’t have to run out to the store and spend thirty-five or fifty cents on one of those papers; rather, all I have to do is turn on my computer, get connected to the internet, type in the URL, and I am instantly at that newspaper’s site, with that day’s electronic headlines only a few inches from my face. I can read the front page news, or click a link that takes me to the sports section, or hit another link that takes me to the movie reviews. There are countless texts, long and short, to read on the internet, and newspapers are only one example. However, I believe that these

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Evaluation of corporate performance Essay

Evaluation of corporate performance Introduction Hershey Company History   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Hershey chocolate company was founded in the United States by Milton Hershey in 1909. The Hershey Company is a leading manufacturer of quality non-chocolate and chocolate and other chocolate-related grocery products in North America. The company has in excess of 80 brands around the globe and its annual revenues are about $ 7.1 billion. Some of the famous brands of Hershey Company include Jolly Rancher, Reese’s, Hershey’s, Ice Breakers and Hershey’s kisses (Bozich, 2009).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Hershey Company has been focusing on improving its presence in main international markets as well as making sure that they have a competitive edge in North America. In addition, Hershey Company has great plans of expanding its portfolio into other brands other than confectionery, where they will find out new ways of bringing goodness to individuals everywhere. For over 120 years, the company has been committed in carrying out good business through operating sustainably, ethically and fairly thus making a positive influence on the society. In this regard they been contributing towards a better life for its consumers, communities, employees, and eventually making sure that those children who are in need have a bright future (Stansberry, 2012). Strengths and weaknesses of Hershey Strengths   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Hershey Company has grown from to a $ 4 billion having various quality chocolates. The company also has a strong brand name which gives the company a strong image. The company has many strengths since they have been in business for a long period of time. The company has got a very good reputation among the shareholders since it pays the dividends always in time to all their shareholders. This has also led to many consumers being loyal to them and to have trust on the company. The company is popular due to their strong customer relations. Another strength of Hershey is that their pricing reasonable thus making them to be affordable to everyone. The Hershey Company enables their customers to make lifestyle choices which are balanced at work, school and also in the community. The company has more than fifty brands in their portfolio and has acquired very many corporations in America (â€Å"The Hershey Company,† 2012).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Hershey has a huge share of the market in North America and the sales keeps increasing almost each year. Hershey brands are produced for the health conscious customers to make sure that Hershey chocolates are healthier alternatives. Hershey Company assures their consumers with health issues for instance diabetics that the chocolates they sell to them are safe and healthier alternatives. The key strategy has been reinventing the image of the chocolates from being the way they are deemed as a source of excessive calories and sugar thus making individuals to be obese and/or diabetic, to a more appealing image where the chocolates are regarded to be a significant aid for protecting the customers from the heart disease and also enhancing the metabolism rate through using the flavonoids in their products (Kash, 2012). Weaknesses   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Hershey company has however some weaknesses where they are supposed to improve in some areas so as to be more effective and profitable. The company is supposed to try gaining more experience in international market. Also around the world, the company has got very few multinational distributors. The company also has focused their business operations more in United States, where they make more money in United States more than countries around the globe. The company has high borrowing level in order to finance their business operations (Bozich, 2009). Financial analysis of Hershey Company   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Hershey earns very high returns on the invested capital than most businesses because of its leading brands and huge market share. Dividing the after-tax operating profit of the company by its average invested capital reveals that Hershey earns a return on invested capital in excess of 15 percent on the average. This shows that for every dollar that the company invests in maintaining or expanding its business, Hershey earns in excess of $ 0.15 in the after-tax profits every year. Therefore, Hershey earns approximately 15 percent of the after-tax return on their stock portfolio every year thus making it a very profitable business (Freedland, 2010).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In addition, the company compounds the effect through lowering its share count continually. Although since the financial crisis Hershey Company has been unable to repurchase a huge number of the shares, the continuing trend reveals that the company is committed towards reducing its share account over time. The Hershey’s combination of shareholder-friendly management and high returns on the invested capital has enriched the shareholders of Hershey Company over the last 20 years (Bozich, 2009).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Hershey Company has a leading and growing share of the United States chocolate market; its brand’s portfolio is more popular among the Americans compared to other brands of the other companies. This enables the company to charge prices which are higher than those of its competitors, thus enabling it to earn very high returns on the invested capital. Hershey will continue earning super profits as long as the Americans focus more regarding the brand which they are buying compared to the price of sugar-and-cocoa combination (Bozich, 2009).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In 2010, the net revenues of the company were 5.67 billion dollar with a net income of 510 million dollars. There was an increase of about 7% from 2009. Financial analysis shows that Hershey has been doing well financially. Hershey Company has for many years remained stable and profitable. The revenues of the Hershey company have been increasing every year. Despite the high revenues the company was highly affected by recession in 2007; however the company was able to recover the recession at a pace which is fairly quick. The net income of the Hershey company in 2007 decreased from 559 million dollars to 214 million dollars (Freedland, 2010). The net income of the company since 2007 has risen and in 2010 was listed at 510 million dollars. The revenues of the Hershey Company from 2006 were as follows: 2006: $4.94 billion2007: $4.95 billion2008: $5.13 billion2009: $5.30 billion2010: $5.70 billion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The EPS and profit margin of Hershey Company from 2006 goes along in the same trend. Hershey’s profit margin went to 4.3% in 2007 from 11.3% in 2006. The profit margin has been increasing steadily and recently was backed up to 8.9 percent. Similarly, the earnings per share of Hershey in 2007 went to $0.93 from $2.34 in 2006. After a constant increase, recently the earnings per share was listed at $ 2.21. The sales of Hershey Company rose by 2.4 percent year- over – year in first quarter of 2014 (â€Å"The Hershey Company,† 2012).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Shares in Hershey Company have increased by over 25 percent in past one year, and now they are trading at 100.38 dollars. Earnings per share for the recent financial year were $ 3.61and in the current financial year Hershey expects the earnings per share (EPS) to be in a range of between $ 4.02 and $ 4.11. This means Hershey Company is currently trading at 27.8 times compared to the earnings of last year and between 24.4 times and 25.0 times anticipated earnings for 2014. However, even if the EPS for 2014 is expected to be $ 4.11, the anticipated EPS growth for 2014 is 13.85 percent. This growth rate in EPS is a bit lower compared to the recent years. The EPS growth from 2008 to 2013 were as follows; 46.24% in 2008, 39.71 in 2009, 16.32 in 2010, 23.98 in 2011, 5.84 in 2012 and 24.48% in 2013 (Bozich, 2009). Despite a growth rate which is lower than usual, Hershey Company is trading a price to earnings ratio which is higher than usual. Shar eholders who invested in the company paid 23.5 times on average of the EPS of the previous year between 2008 and 2013. This level is a bit lower compared to the 27.8 times of the last year’s earnings that Hershey Company is valued at currently. Hershey is currently valued 3.1 times of the last year’s revenues. The financial analysts anticipate that the revenues of the company will be 7.63 billion dollars in the current financial year thus giving Hershey Company a ratio of price to sales of 2.9.This is relatively high ratio compared to that of the last six years (Stansberry, 2012). The Hershey Company pays $ 0.485 as the quarterly dividend. The increase experienced in the price per share made the dividend yield to go down to 1.92 percent. Nevertheless, Hershey’s dividend has been increasing at an increased rate in the recent the recent years. Due to the anticipated growth of EPS of 13.85 percent, the dividend is expected to rise to 0.55 dollars per quarter. This would lead to an increase the dividend yield to about 2.19 percent while the payout ratio will be between a range of between 50% and 55% (â€Å"The Hershey Company,† 2012). Hershey Company has a balance sheet which is excellent with quick ratio of 1.30 and current ratio of 1.77. In addition, Hershey Company has 1.12 billion dollars or 5 dollars per share in regards to cash and cash equivalents. Hershey Company is a great company ideal for investment for those investors who focuses on long-term income growth. Although, the company has high growth in the recent years, at the current valuations the Hershey’s stock seems to be overvalued (â€Å"Why Hershey Is Overvalued,† 2012).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ROE (Return on equity) assesses the rate of return realized on the money invested by the shareholders and retained earnings of a given company emanating from the previous profitable years. This shows the ability of the company in generating profits from the equity of the shareholders (â€Å"Financial management,† 2011).ROE (DuPont formula) = (Net profit / Revenue) X (Revenue / Total assets) X (Total assets / Equity) = Net profit margin X Asset Turnover X Financial leverage X Net Income = $497.170731707million Net profit margin= (Net Income / Revenue) = (497.170731707 / 4666.22320769) = 10.65 %Asset turn over = (Revenue / Total Assets) = (4666.22320769 / 3881.64976454) = 1.2021Financial leverage = (Total assets / Equity) = (3881.64976454 / 1152.32256262) = 3.3685The Hershey Company’s annualized ROE for the quarter ended in Jun. 2014: =10.65 X 1.2021 X 3.3685 ROE (Dupoint system) = 43.15 %   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ROE (Return on equity) shows how efficiently a company is using investment funds in generation of earnings growth. ROEs that are between 15 percent and 20 percent are deemed desirable.Economic Value Added measures the financial performance of the company on basis of the residual wealth. EVA is calculated through deducting the cost of the capital from the company’s operating profit (â€Å"Financial management,† 2011).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Economic Value Added = Net Operating Profit After Taxes (NOPAT) – (Capital x Cost of Capital).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Hershey Company focuses on continuous improvement and thus the Company has adopted Economic Value Added concepts in order to help in measuring their performance. The Economic Value Added (EVA) of Hershey Company for a period of 5 years between 1997 and 2002 was 0.87. In 1997, the employees of Hershey realized that these processes and concepts were being adopted so as to get the required information which is needed in utilizing EVA. In 1988, EVA was being implemented fully, and it was part of hershey’s compensation program for the management, as well as free cash flow and earning per share measurements. Hershey also started recognizing the significant contribution by all the employees of Hershey towards the company’s market growth. Hershey’s Board of directors made an approval which oversees their employees increasing their stake in Hershey Company or providing those employees with a chance of becoming owners of the com pany for the first time. The opportunity was a great incentive to the employees in achieving goals of the company and in maintaining and enhancing the leadership position, increasing the company’s profitability and adding value in everything that the company does (Freedland, 2010).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Hershey’s stock during the past quarter has outperformed the market benchmark thus increasing the investors’ interest in the company. The Hershey company has been using a dividend payout ratio of 63%.The company pays 3 percent solid dividend they have been able to increase the dividend regularly over the past 5 years. Recently, the earnings are reasonably strong, and Hershey has a solid balance sheet and growing free cash flow. Hershey Company has an excellent combination of manageable financial leverage and free cash flow generation which is strong. The cash flow margin in coming years is expected to be 11.6% on average. The return on invested capital of Hershey is expected to expand from 37.9 percent to 41.7% in the next two years (Freedland, 2010).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Although, Hershey stock seems to be overvalued it is still worth buying which I can recommend to the investors. This is because the Hershey company is incredibly capital efficient. Also, the dividend payout ratio has been increasing every year since 1974. The company in actual fact pays out an extremely huge amount out of the profits produced by the company. For instance, in 2008, Hershey realized profits of about 500 million dollars from its operations but it spent approximately 300 million dollars on share buybacks and dividends (Stansberry, 2012). Hershey has the ability of returning so much capital to the shareholders since it necessitates little capital to grow. The company’s cash profits have increased nearly to 1 billion dollars while the company’s growth is approximately 200%. The company has got a very brand name among the investors since it pays the dividends always in time to all their shareholders. Due to all thes e outstanding factors, I would recommend the purchase of Hershey stock as a good investment decision since it is a no-risk investment. References Bozich, S. L. (2009). Hershey. New York, NY: Channel Lake. Financial management (3rd ed.). (2011). London: BPP Learning Media. Freedland, R. (n.d.). Is Hershey a Sweet Investment?. – The Hershey Company (NYSE:HSY). Retrieved April 1, 2010, from Kash, R. (n.d.). The Hershey Company: Aligning inside to win on the outside – Ivey Business Journal. Ivey Business Journal. Retrieved April 5, 2012, from Stansberry, P (n.d.). One of the Greatest Investments of My Career. Why Hershey (HSY) is a Great No-Risk Opportunity. Retrieved February 16, 2012, from Why Hershey Is Overvalued. (n.d.). – The Hershey Company (NYSE:HSY). Retrieved July 24, 2012, from Source document