Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Business Plan For A Restaurant Business Essay - 3568 Words

1. Executive Summary: The Moonlight restaurant is a fine dining restaurant with approximately 55 seats and will be located at Durbar Marg, Kathmandu. This restaurant mostly designs as a cultural and traditional point of view and aims to explore the cultural aspects of the country. The growing trend of Nepali cuisine and its popularity among different group of people inspire me to think about the establishment of restaurant business in Kathmandu. Kathmandu city is one of the populated and developed cities of the country. Similarly, it is very popular tourist destination receiving thousands of tourists each year. In this regard, restaurant business will be profitable business here. The restaurant aims to provide quality food to the customers and satisfy their needs and demands. The following business plan will explain about the detail explanation of the business, its model, strategy, design and other various financial and economic strategies. 2. Business Concept: Nowadays the restaurant business in Nepal especially in Kathmandu is very popular and it is a fast developing business (World Travel Guide, 2014). Every year amount of new restaurants keeps growing and its market is yet not full enough to fulfill the customer demand. I am also planning to establish my own restaurant in Kathmandu, therefore I am very interested in choosing my option for my thesis knowledge and skill that I am planning to prepare my thesis on restaurant which is very important and will beShow MoreRelatedItalian Restaurant Business Plan5836 Words   |  24 PagesItalian Restaurant Business Plan Marketing Executive Summary This business plan for The Pasta House Co. – Fenton (PHC) reflects the opportunity to purchase the assets and leasehold improvements of the restaurant currently operating as  JD Drews. 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My  goal is to submit this business plan to his bankRead MoreBusiness plan Vapiano Restaurant5148 Words   |  21 PagesHospitality Tourism Management Small Business Development and Entrepreneurship MODULE CODE: 6HO712 CW1 Business plan: Vapiano restaurant Student information: Student name: Oman Anja Student ID: 54151 Class: BA1 Module: Small Business Development and Entrepreneurship e-mail: anja.oman@ihtti-mail.ch Lecturers: Yuriy Barabentsev / Jaco von Wielligh Word count: 3,725 Date of Submission: 20.3.2015 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 1.1 Business Objectives 3 1.2 Mission Statement 4Read MoreBusiness Plan For A Restaurant And Bar Chain Business1090 Words   |  5 PagesHere i would like to open a restaurant and bar chain business so here is the following business plan 1 – Executive Summary The Executive Summary is the most important part of your business plan. Because if it doesn’t interest readers, they’ll never even get to the rest of your plan. 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Sunday, December 22, 2019

Basketball And Baseball Street Ball At The Park - 899 Words

The year is 2004, all the Portland boys are playing street ball at the park. All the kids are anywhere between 16 to 35. Damian, built like a tank, is 14 and about 5’8†. The competition in the neighborhood is uncomparable. Even at 14, Damian is easily the best player out of the group. The reason he is so good, is because of his work ethic. Damian spends every possible second at the park or in the gym. Damian is a hard worker, coach-able, and compassionate, and humble. One day, Damian and his father, build a basketball hoop out of a milk crate and a piece of plywood. It’s not like all the store bought Lifetime hoops that his friends have, but it’s good enough for him. His family can’t afford much, and Damian has it pretty rough.†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"Thank you so much sir!† Damian exclaims. â€Å"First practice is in two days, be there.† Jarvis states firmly. â€Å"Ok thank you!† Damian hangs up the phone. First practice comes, Damian shows up to see all the varsity players that as a kid he looked up to and wished he could be. Practice starts, and is comparable to all the other kids, but is still better. As practices continue through the year Damian grows as a player. The first game comes around, and Damian is going to work. Leaping with all his might, Dame throws down a rim shattering dunk. All the fans a hyped up for the next game, and at the next game, the gym is packed. Again, Dame is the starting point guard, he scores twenty-four points. Damian finishes his first four years of high school, and has a total twelve college offers. It takes him four days to decide to go to Florida State University. Damian gets his first minutes at FSU as a freshman in their third game. He scores seventeen points. Dame grows tremendously as a player throughout his four years in college, and becomes FSU’s leading scorer as a senior. After the end of his last season as a senior Dame enters the NBA draft. He is selected to the Trail Blazers in the first round. Damian’s dream has finally come true! Damian is so happy, and his parents are so extremely proud of their son.

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Physiology Essay Free Essays

Muscles are responsible for all conscious and unconscious movement. It is how we move and react to an environment. There are three types of muscles in the body include the skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and the cardiac muscle. We will write a custom essay sample on Physiology Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Whether you are running, walking, breathing, eating, sleeping, or typing it all involves some sort of muscle action. Muscle cells that shape, form, and outline the whole human skeleton is called a muscle fibers. There are two types of muscle fibers: Type I (slow-twitching fibers) and Type II ( fast-twitching fibers). â€Å"The slow muscles are more efficient at using oxygen to generate more fuel (known as ATP) for continuous, extended muscle contractions over a long time. They fire more slowly than fast twitch fibers and can go for a long time before they fatigue. † (Quiin, 2013) The slow-twitching fibers utilizes an oxidation energy system, or ability to require more oxygen in creating fuel for the muscles, that allows long distance runners to finish a marathon as long as they can. In contrast, Type I muscle fiber is built more for endurance. â€Å"Fast twitch fibers use anaerobic metabolism to create fuel, they are much better at generating short bursts of strength or speed than slow muscles. However, they fatigue more quickly. Fast twitch fibers generally produce the same amount of force per contraction as slow muscles, but they get their name because they are able to fire more rapidly. † (Quiin, 2013) Fast-twitching muscles generate energy from the anaerobic energy system, allowing ‘explosive’ movements for short amount of time before fatigue. Conclusively, Type II fibers are more for a sprinter or agility movements in periods of two or three minutes. To break it down more, there are two types of Type II muscle fibers: Type IIa and Type IIb. Type IIa have both characteristics Type I and Type II fiber that consume both anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. And type IIb is more like fast-twitching fibers with its anaerobic energy requirements. When it comes to training certain muscles fiber types, everybody is more differently built with one muscle fiber than the other. Some are more of a 300-meter sprinter; others are able to run endlessly. Training for a marathon requires a lot of long distance running; training for a 400 meter shuttle sprint will require more short distance runs. No matter what the case is, the only way to improve performance is to keep working on that area; in return builds endurance for that muscle group. In relation to the previous paragraph, muscles require energy to perform. Depending on the muscle fiber type determines which energy system is used. Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is energy that make muscle contraction possible. The energy systems consist of the ATP-PCr system, glycolysis system, and the oxidative system. The ATP-PCr system utilizes stored ATP for quick, ‘explosive’ movements such as releasing a powerful swing with a baseball bat. The glycolysis system â€Å"provides energy for activities of slightly longer duration and lower intensity like strength training. † (Hefferman, 2012) And the oxidative system is used for physical activities that perform for a longer period of time, requiring more oxygen. The first two energy systems are anaerobic, while the third one is aerobic. What all of these systems have in common is they must consume glucose. Glucose is a form of fuel that comes from the foods we eat. Glucose store in the muscles and liver is called glycogen. When the body and muscles need energy, the glycogen goes through glycolysis; in which is broken down to, once again, glucose. Performing an exercise requires the fuel for the contracting muscles. How does the muscle contract? Reason to contract muscle can be with and without conscious. On a segment or bundle of muscles are controlled by a neuron in the nervous system. The neuron is made up a cell body (soma), axon, and dendrites. The neuron is referred to as an excitable tissue that transmits signals into nerve impulses. â€Å"A nerve impulse is an electrical signal that travels along an axon. There is an electrical difference between the inside of the axon and its surroundings, like a tiny battery. When the nerve is activated, there is a sudden change in the voltage across the wall of the axon, caused by the movement of ions in and out of the neuron.† (What are nerve impulses) From contracting muscles to maintaining normal cellular functions, the body requires fuel for energy. Fuel, or calories, is what our body does to metabolize energy. To obtain this fuel, we consume food. Foods we eat made up nutrients and fuel substrates consisting of fat, protein, carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, when broken down, create glucose that is for energy or stored, turns into glycogen, when not in immediate use. Fat is broken down to triglycerides to be used for metabolic energy, and stored as fat when not in immediate use. Protein breaks down into a form of amino acids when used for energy. Carbohydrates and fat are mainly used for all metabolic needs to generate ATP; protein, in a form of amino acids, goes through lipogenesis for cellular energy needs. In event where all fat and carbohydrates are depleted, protein is a last resort for ATP. If you ever noticed on a nutrition label printed on a bag or box of food, sometimes you can see the amount of calories per gram that each substrate has. Carbohydrates and protein stores about four calories per gram, whereas fat contains nine calories per gram; this is one advantage of consuming fat than carbohydrates. Another advantage is fat (triglycerides) can be stored as fat, while carbohydrates require water to form into glycogen for store; this results into water retention (water weight). Disadvantage of fat would be converting into energy (glucose), whereas carbohydrates (glucose) are already broken down and ready to be utilized. This is a reason why marathon runners ‘carb load’ days prior the event. Injunction to the first paragraph, the heart is made up of the cardiac muscle. One of the most essential parts of the cardiovascular system, the heart pumps the blood throughout the body transporting oxygen and nutrients to cells. The heart is a very complex organ that consists of â€Å"four cavities, or open spaces, inside the heart that fill with blood. Two of these cavities are called atria. The other two are called ventricles. The two atria form the curved top of the heart. The ventricles meet at the bottom of the heart to form a pointed base which points toward the left side of your chest. The left ventricle contracts most forcefully, so you can best feel your heart pumping on the left side of your chest. † (Unysis) So, the heart pushes the red, oxygen-rich blood from the lungs through the left side of the heart to the rest of the body. As the blood pumps, it delivers the oxygen and flows back to the heart and through the lungs to drop off carbon dioxide and pick up oxygen. To prevent back flow, heart’s internal structures comprises of valves that open and close with every pump of blood. Another essential part of the cardiovascular is blood. Blood is a fluid containing red blood cells, plasma, antibodies, hormones, enzymes, and nutrients. The purpose of blood consist of transporting oxygen to cells of the body, carry out waste such as carbon dioxide, maintain normal body temperature, and regulate pH levels and hormones. Blood travels through series of vessels. These include arteries (rich-oxygen blood leaving the heart to cells), veins (poor-oxygen blood leaving from the cells through the heart and to the lungs), and capillaries (blood vessel that connects between the veins and arteries). Blood is the life source to sustain life and maintain cellular functions. How to cite Physiology Essay, Essays

Friday, December 6, 2019

Remembrance Day free essay sample

It is significant because it is a day in history where the world mourn the deaths of people in the war. And on this day people show respect by wearing poppies and also taking a 2 minute silence from their busy lives. Remembrance Day is about remembering the many soldiers who were killed, the innocent civilians who also died and also to reflect on the cons of war. World War 2 was a witness of one of the most deadly wars in history and as a result 22. 6 million to about 25. million soldiers were killed worldwide. And these soldiers died to save the very world we live on with freewill and freedom. If the world’s soldiers didn’t sacrifice their lives then the axis powers could have easily completed their quest of world domination. The world would have been extremely different with only a world population of Hitler’s so called ‘Aryans’ race. We will write a custom essay sample on Remembrance Day or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page No Jews, No Americans, No UN and small diversity. 2003-2010 those are the years that the Iraq war has lasted and since then over 98 380 107 369 civilians have died. That’s right you read correctly civilians. Now it’s important to remember civilians as they didn’t want to sacrifice their lives. They were just minding their own business when an out of the blue, attack happened; one great example is Collateral Murderer on YouTube. This extremely insightful video shows a helicopter apache shooting 2 Reuters journalists, innocent civilians and an unarmed van with 2 children. What is upsetting in this video is that the pilot shoots these civilians based on his own freewill and literally treats war like a video game. The website for this video was deleted by the US government but this video is still found on YouTube. This video is the exact reason why we should mourn civilians on Remembrance Day. Is war good or bad? This question has got historians and journalist going conkers, each with different opinions. But war is bad in so many levels. First it obviously kills a ton of people, it wastes the governments money that could instead be used to better use e. g. o end poverty. War creates hatred between countries, this leads to racism and religious persecution. War can also use a lot of the world resources which again can be put to better use. Remembrance Day is the exact day of thinking about the many soldiers who sacrificed their lives, the innocent civilians who didn’t sacrifice their lives but died anyway and finally Remembrance Day is also used to remember and reflect on war in general and see if it is a ood think or a bad thing. Traditionally most people will only remember the soldiers. But I brought up the fact that remembering the civilians is just as important because they may not have been soldiers but they did die in the war which is also a valuable death. I also brought up the fact that people have to also reflect on war and think if war is good or bad so they can see what a war does to a country or even to the world.

Friday, November 29, 2019

How To Use Apostrophes Properly

How To Use Apostrophes Properly Of all the grammar mistakes students make, use of apostrophes is the most common. Despite a degree education, studies show that graduates are twice as likely to make grammar mistakes on important documents than those who didn't go to university. Modern means of communication are eroding our everyday use of grammar, which can be awkward at best and cost you a job at worst. Have you ever sent someone a message that was intended to be read one way, but the recipient read it a different way? That is why learning how to use grammar correctly is so important. What is an Apostrophe? An apostrophe (') is a character that serves two functions: 1.Apostrophes show possession Dave's pint 2.Apostrophes show where letters have been removed for a contraction Let's go! Apostrophes make possessives much easier and far less wordier. They allow you to say things like: "Dave's pint was spilled down Donna's dress" easily. Without an apostrophe, the only way to tell who owns the pint and dress is to say: "The pint that belonged to Dave was spilled down the dress that Donna was wearing." To show the possession without a possessive apostrophe, you need another verb (belong and wear in this case). Apostrophes also demonstrate contractions. They allow you to easily understand that when you say won't, you mean will not. You aren't saying wont (a person's customary behaviour). So, as confusing as they seem, apostrophes are designed to remove confusion. Still confused? Read on! Rules for Possessive Apostrophes When to use a possessive apostrophe Many university essay guidelines have nothing to say on the subject of possessive apostrophes. But if yours do, follow those guidelines. On the other hand, it is not advised to remove possessive apostrophes in order to pad out your word count. As you can see in the example above, it just doesn't read naturally and your work will draw criticism. Here are the 3 rules of possessive apostrophes: 1. Use an apostrophe + s ('s) to show that one person/thing owns or is a member of something. Dave's pint Donna's dress For names that end in "s", it is acceptable to add apostrophe + s. You can also choose to just use an apostrophe. Both ways create a possessive form, but the key is to be consistent. Whichever version you choose to use, maintain that choice throughout your work, across all names. Thomas's collection of records Thomas' last essay of the year So, if you're talking about Thomas's records and Jesus's teachings in the same essay, stay consistent. Do not deviate to Jesus' for the variety. 2. Use an apostrophe after the "s" at the end of a plural noun to show possession for more than one thing or person. Leaving your parents' house for good The Smiths' music is great There is no need to add an "s" to a plural possessive noun. 3. If a plural noun doesn't end in "s," add an apostrophe + "s" to create the possessive form. The team's big night out If a plural noun doesn't have an "s" on the end, add one after your apostrophe. Remember: Only use a possessive apostrophe when a thing in a sentence owns something or is a member of something. Common mistakes: We have 4 iPad's for sale' Back in the 1940's The Aztecs ritual's were a cornerstone of the culture Apostrophes Contractions When you combine two words and take out some letters, you make a contraction. If you do, use an apostrophe to replace the words. I won't touch that They'll be up all night We've been in the library I can't wait all day These are the most common uses for apostrophes and most people know how to use them in contractions. University course style guides will tell you whether or not contractions are allowed. Refer to your course guidelines first, because the use of contractions is a purely stylistic decision, unlike possessive apostrophes, which have hard and fast rules. For more help on writing first class essays, check out our Advice Guidance section.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Sir Thomas More Essays

Sir Thomas More Essays Sir Thomas More Essay Sir Thomas More Essay Thomas More finds himself on the horns of a dilemma of conscience. It was during his era that the Catholic Church was experiencing turbulent times with the emergence of Protestant ideas and the Kings ecclesiastical proclamations to obtain the supremacy of the Church. When King Henry VIII appointed him as Lord Chancellor, he was expected to make hasty, favorable judgments on the case involving the annulment of the marriage of the king to Catherine of Aragon, daughter of the Spanish king and to assert the validity of his marriage to   Anne Boleyn, one   of Queen Catherines ladies in court.   Zielke (2002) on his short summary of Saint Thomas Mores life, interpreted this as a way of using Thomas More as an instrument to widen the   Anti-Catholic policy of the crown because this would mean that he would have to renounce the authority of the pope who issued the formal dispensation of Henry and Catherines marriage and to acknowledge the children of Henry and Anne as legitimate heirs to the throne. When he refused to do so, he was accused of committing the act of treason and later on beheaded.In the cause of royal prerogative, More followed the kings order and proclaimed Henrys first marriage as unlawful. However, the idea of declaring the king as the Supreme Head of the Church fueled his decision to resign from his position because of his strict adherence to his theological principles. He also refused to take the oath of acknowledgment of Anne Boylens coronation out of loyalty to his friendship with the former Queen Catherine and to avoid public encounters with the king. Zielke (2002) noted that although More   knew that his firm opposition over Henrys orders in regards of the divorce and papal supremacy will not gain him popularity over the kings side, he opted to stand up for his faith in a time of great turbulation- that the Pope is the head of the Church and the king could not reign supreme over him. Moreover, Wegemer (2006) opin ed that   More was convinced that a person can overcome any form of suffering and pain for as long as he believes in the goodness of God and stays on his side all throughout his given life.Personal beliefs were often tested in twisted circumstances and Thomas Mores decision to stand up for the truth was admirable. According to Blake (2004), in certain professions, a person is expected to either adhere to his personal beliefs or to suffer the consequences of convictions for choosing not to align yourself with the majority and to support sovereign goals. As a leading humanist scholar, Sir Thomas More exemplified a desire to serve his countrymen upon his appointment to various public offices but did not compromise his faithfulness to God and the Church. Zielke (2002) stated that Thomas More must have noticed the grave threat that King Henry VIII posed against the Church for renouncing Papal Authority and instead trying to obtain by force the Supremacy of the Church but he did not let professional expectations hinder him from his practice of personal beliefs and theological principles.. His good character is full of richness and versatility because he boldly stood up for his viewpoints although he was faced with many challenges that made him face convictions.He held his true allegiance to his self and to his faith on God and not to any other man in the parliament, something he proved until the last days of his life.   According to Wikipedia database,   Thomas More steadfastly held on to his religious conviction in the face of imprisonment, unfair trials, and even death even if it stained his professional reputation. Wegemer (2006) further added that More was able to surpass everything in the midst of a series of great storms in his life by acquiring calmness and integrity that goes with opting to stick to the truth. Internal freedom may be tried and tested for violating several laws of the society but it is the truth that sets the freedom of the soul. Faced with the 15 judges who wrongfully condemned him, there was no trace of fear on his face when he boldy stated to them that he is and will always be a servant of God and God alone and that no matter how he much he believes on political authority, he has no obligations to follow orders of any person who would try to twist that belief. Another admirable trait to look at Thomas Mores decision is his unwavering support and loyalty for his friendship with Queen Catherine. He expressed wishes for happiness for the marriage of the king to his second wife, Anne Boylen but this did not mean that he is ending his magnanimous friendship with the Catherine. This is a trait you rarely see on a person nowadays, especially on times when a lot is at stake and the only escape you can get is to renounce the friendship and save yourself.Zielke (2002) found out in his research about Thomas Mores life that during his last days in prison, he suffered from his old heart disease and chest cramps but he remai ned cheerful when visited by friends and family members. He was also often seen to pray and practice his penitential activities on hours when he had nothing to do. Richard Rich, the Solicitor General who visited   on his cell, twisted Mores words to further pin evidences against him and make him look guilty for the act of treason. Thomas More, after being given an unjust trial with Anne Boylens father, brother and uncle as members of the panel who evaluated his case, was later convicted and beheaded.Wikipedias database revealed that he was later beatified by Pope Leo XIII in 1886 and was proclaimed as a political saint in 1935 when the Anti-Catholism rallies were at its peak His trial and conviction was considered unfair for an honest statesman who only stood on his theological grounds instead of opting to renounce it for political ambitions. In a play entitled A Man for All Seasons shown in 1966, he was portrayed as a man of conscience and biographers like Peter Ackroyd referred to him as a scholastic humanist and a man of letters. In todays setting, there are individuals   condemned for twisted truths and unreliable justice systems while people, who have been tried with sufficient evidences, find ways to get hide the truth and get around the justice system. Obtaining a moral conscience should always be a persons motivation and goal in life, regardless of whatever predicament he is facing or challenges he is forced to battle.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Systems Approach Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Systems Approach - Essay Example [Kelly, G., p.204]. According to this, the laws governing the parts determine or cause the behavior of the whole. That’s why the client’s behavior needs to be viewed as a whole, being determined by the complex of influences from inner and outer surroundings to the organism. General Systems Theory is based on the assumption that there are universal principles of organization, which hold all the systems, be they physical, chemical, biological, mental or social. In this case, while treating a client there is an urgent need to appreciate his behavior as being influenced by a complicated list of determinates, which could be very different, but at the same time, due to the Systems Approach, are similar to all the human organisms. According to G.A.Kelly, the person-as-clent is ‘what he does’, and the therapist is primary interested in the client’s overall personal construction system within which he structures his world, and builds his relations to such a world. Primary diagnostic work in this case include an outline of the client’s existing channels of movement, the prediction of the development of a way how a person will behave, and what factors this behavior is determined by. The reasons for this emerge from the client’s inner problems, hidden in his childhood (this is the case of study for psychoanalysis, when the behavioral patterns of a client are the shadows of the events happened to him in the past), or are determined by the conditions of the present surrounding, and his personal behavioral constructs. Kelly stresses, that ‘by seeing a client’s constructs and their opposites as channels of potential movement for him, the therapist has some basis for forecasting what adjustments will appear to the client to be available when he finds himself up to his ears in people’. [Kelly, G., p.187] To view a client and to make an appropriate diagnosis the therapist must point of all the influences which have a certain impact on the

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Analyzing the Yield Curve Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Analyzing the Yield Curve - Essay Example The figure below shows the yield curve of US Treasury of 11th February 2011. The key point here is that only bonds with different maturities of US Treasury have been selected since they are default free and do not have credit risk associated with them. Despite the fact that these bonds are risk free than why the yield curve is positive sloping that is its yield is increasing with an increase in maturities. Figure 1: US Treasury bond yields as of Feb 11, 2011 (Source: www.bondsonline.com) Table 1: Yield on US Treasury bonds with different maturities The reason why it’s upward sloping is because the curve shows the expectations of the investors about future interest rates. The investors require a higher rate of return as a compensation for lending their money for a longer period of time. In addition to that, the figure also reveals that as the Fed rate is currently on a very lower side therefore the market believes that in the future the returns will adjust due to inflation and other macroeconomic factors. This is more related with the expectations theory of the investors. The yield curve shifts over the period of time that is interest rate of different maturities increase or decrease on similar risk bonds. This is for a number of reasons that causes shifts in yield curves. Firstly, the economic scenario in a country determines how the yield curve should behave.

Monday, November 18, 2019

Two research methods Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Two research methods - Assignment Example The greatest advantage of qualitative approach is that it is relatively simple to carry out, as there is no strict research design. Secondly, this approach engages the nature more naturally. This approach is also advantageous in that it allows for collection of more detailed data making it more comprehensive. The main disadvantage of qualitative approach lies on the fact that the researcher is heavily involved in the research and therefore, outcome basically depends on researchers ability to carry out the research. Quantitative approach, on the other hand, uses concrete data as well as rigorous statistical and data analysis techniques. Data analysis softwares such as SPSS are often used. A researcher begins with a hypothesis they seek to prove and then goes on to collect and analyze data in the process. Considering that findings come from the data, deductive reasoning is commonly associated with quantitative approach. However, objectivity is overwhelmingly important in this form of approach and variables well known. Greatest advantage of quantitative approach is that researcher gets the opportunity to analyze data in more detailed fashion making the approach more objective. However, quantitative approach is disadvantageous in that things are not done in their natural setting. Additionally, approach is more complicated and time consuming. More notably, large populations must be studied for the research to gain

Saturday, November 16, 2019

The Philosophy Of God And Religion Theology Religion Essay

The Philosophy Of God And Religion Theology Religion Essay Beings and Human Beings are born in nature. Religion and caste are the creations of men. The need of the millennium is human integration across religions, races and countries by the pursuit of right knowledge about Man, Nature and Society. Religion is the derivative of ancient myths and beliefs passed on from one generation to the other(another) thereby being elucidated into faiths, rituals and traditions. Around 2000-2200 million people believe in Christianity, making it by far the single largest religion in the world. Around 1300-1650 million people believe in Islam, making it the second most followed religion in the world. Around 828-1000 million people follow Hinduism. Around 1000 million people do not have any religion or notion of God, also referred to as atheists. 400 million people follow Buddhism. Irrespective of what these people follow or what notion they hold of God. Religion is something, which was created for the betterment of human society as a whole. But In the 21st century religion has more or less become an instrument of war creating unrest amongst countries and people. Many of the major problems in the present millennia can be attributed to these religious conflicts. These conflicts between major world religions can become a detrimental recipe for disaster wherein they can threaten the very existence of the dominant species on this planet i.e. Homo sapiens sapiens . The reason why I lay emphasis on the genus and sub-genus is that, across the population people may differ on the basis of colour, caste, race, height, weight, gender and religion but what unites them is the sense of belonging to one species i.e. Homo sapiens. My father, a philosopher cum visionary would always say that: Beings and Human Beings are born out of the same bowl called nature. Religion and caste are the creations of man. The need of the millennium is to bridge this void and bring about human integration across religions, races and countries by the pursuit of true knowledge about Man, Nature and Society. Conflict Resolution- Conflict Resolution is the need of the hour and should therefore be given extensive thought and time, following which it should be implemented at a Micro as well as a Macro Level. Envisioning and bringing forth a society whereby individuals and communities work and make decisions for the greater good of mankind on the basis of facts rather than on myths and beliefs. Conflict Resolution amongst world religions in its literary sense cannot be achieved, nonetheless a difference in perception exists about the notion of God/Gods amongst the believers. Human beings should rise against these odds towards greater enlightenment forging ahead a new era of peace and progress. On the flip side, one should also be aware of the origin and fate of the vast expanse known as the universe comprising of millions of galaxies, stars, planets and what is the energy which is keeping all of this intact and that too in a predetermined and fixed path. One should also be aware of the conscious and subconscious state of mind through which we possess this knowledge about each and everything. If the above mentioned points were made clear, all the mere believers in this world will become true rationalists. If one Global Religion were to be followed, it would be on the basis of scientific thinking rather than on blind beliefs. All actions and texts of this religion would be based upon the scientific knowledge and literature available at the time. The theory would be self-evolving in nature to the advancements in science and technology. People should come to an understanding that all Human Beings are created as equals. Nature does not discriminate while nurturing. So as human beings we cannot be discriminative towards the way we look, approach and act towards others belonging to different castes, religions, races, colours etc. I strongly believe Knowledge is a driving force. Knowledge possessed by a certain individual is detrimental towards the way he/she acts in a certain manner. Therefore it becomes imperative to inculcate the right knowledge and values. Being ignorant of the world around is far better than being misinformed. Terrorism is also the outgrowth of this misinformation and the misconceptions about God and his preaching. This is where we need to play a role whereby we expel all the misinformation and bring about a sense of belonging. Human Beings are said to be the building blocks of societies. The kind of knowledge an individual possesses has a direct impact on the way he/she acts or behaves. The way one behaves thereby has an impact on the society as a whole. Knowledge and Behaviour play in tandem and therefore it becomes imperative to give the right Knowledge and eliminate wrong Knowledge. To do this, there are certain prerequisites, Firstly, one should know how to judge between the right knowledge and the wrong knowledge. To do this one should be aware of philosophy and its constituents especially the branch of philosophy which deals with epistemology, logic and origin of the Universe and its existence. But in this world, which has so far existed, every great society has had its fair share of myths ranging from the creation of the world to how it will eventually end. Tales of wonder and imagination abound wherein each myth is filled with magic, mystery, heroism, treachery, courage and faith. These myths are so widely accepted that they have even managed to permeate in the 21st century. Hence it is our responsibility to differentiate between a myth and a tenet. Somehow or the other the terms like god and religion are attributed to philosophy philosophy; Hence we will now discuss regarding the philosophy and what is the origin and fate of the god and religion. Different questions in philosophy which made a strong emphasis for the existence of God and religion:- We each exist but for a very short time. The actions that we do during the tenure of our life and the fruits which we bear from them is considered as life. My father used to tell me , Life is real, simple and short. Humans, being a curious species explore and question everything, we develop theories, we seek answers , we think, we justify things, we have the ability to communicate all these things which in turn makes us the most dominant species on planet earth. After coming through different perceptions of the universe from the earlier times to today, we might have a multitude of questions -: How can we understand the world in which we find ourselves? How does universe behave? What is the nature of reality? Where did all this come from? Did the universe need a creator? What are the different ways of obtaining knowledge ? How many types of matter exist in the universe? What is philosophy? What are the qualities of the different things in the universe? What is reality? What is the ultimate goal of human beings? What are beliefs? What are atoms? How do we know things? What is is a cause? How to explain the properties of a thing? What is space and time? What is justice? What is the truth? What is goodness? How language came in to existense and what is language? What are the reasons behind different things? What is beauty and art? What is perception,inference,verbal testimony? What is mind? What is the origin of religion? Who invented the first god? And countless othersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.. Traditionally these are the prime questions of Philosophy . Many indian and western schools of philosophy which gave appropriate answers to many of the above questions and near appropriate answers to some of the questions since ancient times , due to lack of availability of means and scope, like instruments and science and technology., but these days however, these questions are answered by the other schools like different branches of Physical sciences and chemical sciences. But during the earlier times these questions were answered by various religions in many different ways. Opinions of Some major Philospohers and Scientists Western Schools of Philsopohy:- When it comes to religion, there are six major figures who have done extensive research on Religions and gods, Namely 1.Friedrich max Muller(1823-1900 He is often called the father of the comparitive religion, Friedrich Max Muller was the son of a German Romantic poet. He studied in Leipzing and in Paris, where he began his first major work, a monumental edition of the Sanskrit text of the Rig Veda, published in four volumes between 1849 and 1862. He settled in England in 1846 and spent most of the remainder of his life in Oxford, becoming Professor of Comparative Philology in 1868. A prolific writer, his later books included Comparative Mythology (1856), Introduction to the Science of Religion (1873) India, What can it teach us? (1883), and many other works, including three series of Gifford Lectures and two volumes of personal reminiscences. He was alo responsible for editing the fifty-volume series of Sacred Books of the East-still an invaluable source for the study of religion. Max Muller brought the religions of the world for the first time to the notice of the English-speaking public, interpreted to the West the ancient and modern religions of India, in a vital, if sometimes idiosyncratic, way. His theories that religion arose through the personification of natural phenomena have, on the other hand, been wholly superseded. 2.Edward Burnett Taylor (1832-1917) In its early years , the study of comparative religion was much concerned with the origin and evolution of religion as a universal human phenomenon. E.B. Tylor, who in 1896 became Britains first professor of anthropology, in the 1860 s coined the term animism to describe what he believed to be the earliest stage in this evolutionary process, a simple belief in spiritual beings. Tylor studied in Mexico; this visit resulted in his first book, Anahuac (1861). He subsequently published Researches into the Early History of Mankind (1865), and his most important work, Primitive Culture (1871), in which the animism theory is cleary stated. Briefly, it is that early mans experiences of dream and trance that led him first to a belief in a separate soul (anima) in himself, and later to postulate the existence of surviving souls (ghosts), and of many such souls in animals, plants, the atmosphere, etc. Out of this belief in souls or spirits, there eventually developed belief in gods. As an evolutionary theory, this is of very little value, but it does represent accurately the way in which primal (and other) peoples (people) look on the unseen world. Tylors example, provided for the first time a way of understanding religion at a basic level, served to point anthropology along a path which it still to some extent follows. WILLIAM JAMES (1842-1910) William James, the brother of the celebrated American novelist Henry James, was chiefly responsible, in the years around the turn of the century, for popularizing the new subject of the psychology of religion. His book The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902) is a classic, and widely read even today. Trained in medicine, he taught both physiology and psychology at Harvard as early as the 1870s, and in1890 published a celebrated textbook, The Principles of Psychology. Most of his others books , including The Will to Believe (1896), Pragmatism (1907) and Human Immortality (1908), were originally courses of lectures. In his Varieties he drew many valuable distinctions between types of religious experience, the best known being that between the optimistic religion of healthy mindedness (typified by Christian Science) and the pessimistic religion of the sick soul (traditional Calvinism). He also had much to say on mysticism, and discussed altered states of consciousness many years before the subject became fashionable. He came from a Swedenborgina background, and his own religon was an indistinct theism, far removed from orhtodox Christiantity. Although he is still worth reading;his approach was too individualistic, and he had little to say about the corporate aspects of religon. His methods, too, were seriously called in question by the depth psychologists (Freud, Jung and their followers), and are hardly applicable today. WILLIAM ROBERTSON SMITH (1846-1894) Robertson Smith , best known for his magisterial book Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (1889), was a minister of the Free Church of Scotland. In 1870 he became Professor of Old Testament Studies at the Free Church Colloge in Aberdeen. In the early 1880 he was dismissed from his chair for unscriptural teaching,and in 1883 was elected Professor of Arabic at Cambridge. A liberal evangelical, he was responsible for bringing together traditional philological study of the Bible and the new insights of anthropology. He first visited North Africa in 1879, and was impressed by the existence of totemism among the Sinai Bedouin: this resulted in his first major work, Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia(1885). In his later Lectures, he concentrated on the concept of sacririce, which he saw less as a legal transaction than as a practical means of establishing communion with deity. He also recognized that in religion, customs and rituals are often more significant than systems of belief, and that it is vitally important that the student be an accurate and sympathetic observer of the practical side of religon. His influence was widespreadd: he inspired J.G. Frazer to study totemism, and was a forerunner of the sociological study of religion- for which reason he, almost alone among his contemporaries, is still respected among sociologists and anthropologists. Despite his brush with ecclesiastical authority, he remained warmly evangelical in his personal beliefs. NATHAN SODERBLOM (1866-1931) The link between comparative religion and Christian theology was firmly established in the early part of the twentieth century by a group of scholars of whom Nathan Soderblom was perthaps the most outstanding. Born the son of a Lutheran country minister in Sweden, from 1894 to 1901 he was Swedish legation pastor in Parus; in 1901 he bacame Professor of Comparative Religion in Uppsala in 1914, a post he occupied until his death in 1931. His scholarly work spanned many fields, among them are Iranian studies, Luther studies, mysticism, and General comparative religion. Though few of his many books were translated into English, his Gifford Lectures The Living God (published posthumously in 1931) were widely read in those days. He endeavored to locate historica Protestantism within Christiantiy, and Christianity within the religions of the world. He drew valuable distinctions between mystical and revealed forms of religon, and later between two forms of mysticism, mysticism of personality (Paul, Luther) and mysticism of the infinite (indian religon). As well as this academic work, Soderblom made an invaluable contribution to twentieth-century Christianity as one of the fathers of the ecumenical movement. RUDOLF OTTO (1869-1937) Educated at Ealanged and Gottingen, most of Ottos career was spent in teaching posts at Gottingen, Breslau and Marburg. After early work in Luther studies, he turned his attention to the philosophy of religion, and after 1911 to the philosophy of religion, and after 1911 to the study of Indian religions.His best known and most important work, The Idea of the Holy, first appeared in German in 1917, and in English in 1923. In it, he attempted to show that religion begins with the sense of the numinous, that is, of a mysteriously other deity both fearsome and fascinating (numen=deity). This book became a religious classic. His later Indian studies included -Mysticism East and West (1932) and- Indias Religion of Grace (1930), and a critical edition of the Bhagavad Gita (The Original Gita, 1939). In 1921, convinced of the importance of living, inter-religious dialogue, he inaugurated the Inter-Religious League, which was not a success. In his last years his internationalism caused him to fall foul of the Nazi government in Germany, and he died in 1937. Ottos most lasting contribution to the study of religion lay in his insistence on the importance of -immediate, non-rational experience to any estimate of the nature of religion. Although -The Idea of the Holy was not always well understood, it spoke directly to the mind of the twentieth century, and helped lay the foundations for much later work in the area of personal religious experience and of mysticism. Williams James(1842-1910),William Robertson Smith(1846-94),Nathan s(S)oderblom(1866-1931,Rudolf Otta)1869-1937),When ever we speak regarding religions these people should be remebered by the world.Thier works are really needed for the mankind.They have done a major research in the field of god and religion. At the same time some scientists cum philsophers have also given their valuable opinions on God and religion. Now we shall discuss some of the valuable opinions and some misconceptions. Many people didnt develop theories on practical basis (Quantitative Predictions) .Aristotle and others, made the priniciples that appealed to him intellectually, most people suppressed the facts that they found unappealing. No matter how severely their theories deviated from reality ; they used to alter and never removed the concept. For example -The Greek Christian successors rejected the idea that the universe is governed by indifferent natural law. Some religious dogmas like Epicurus (341Bc-270Bc) opposed atomism on the grounds that it is Better to follow the myths about God than to become a slave to the destiny of natural Philosophers. Aristotle too rejected the concept of atoms because he could not accept that human beings were composed of soulless inanimate objects.But the Indian Philsophers considered Atoms as a kind of matter and there are many concepts and theories developed by Kannada on atoms ; but even the concept of atoms has been curbed in India by Adi Shankara.It is not the context of this essay to discuss more on atoms.(remove the last sentence) Most of the theories developed in the Great India with clear cut concepts of Atoms, Body, Matter, Space ( were destroyed with time and circumstances)what not everything, were just went into wrong hands, either. They were changed and some still lay. Unapproachable to the humans as they were destroyed. ( remove everything after circumstances) The Christian philosopher Thomas Aquiras said, It is clear that inanimate bodies reach their end not by chance but by intention-There is therefore an intelligent personal being whom everything in nature is ordered to its end and that intelligent person is nothing but god. Even as late as in the 16th century the great German astronomer Johanes Kepler belived that planets had sense perception and consciously followed laws of movement that were grasped by their mind. Indeed in 1277 Bishop of Temple of Paris,acting on the instructions of Pope John XXI published a list of 219 errors or heresies that were to be condemned.Among the heresies was the idea that nature follows laws.Because this conflicts with the gods omnipotence, unfortunately Pope John was killed by the effect of the law of gravity a few months later when the roof of his place fell on him due to the gravitations pull of earth. According to Descartes- God could at will alter the truth or falsity of ethical proposition or mathematical theorems but not nature. He believed that God ordained the laws of nature but had no choice in the laws; rather he picked them because the laws we experience are the only possible laws. Moreover Descartes felt once God set the world going ,he left it entirely alone. If nature is governed by laws ,then we all have a set of questions like :- 1-From where did these laws were originate? 2-How can you understand these laws? 3-Do these laws need a creator? 4-Are these laws final ? 5-Can there be exceptions to these laws? These important questions have been addressed by different philosophers ,scientists and visionaries in many different ways. The answer to the first question has been given by the great scientists like Kepler,Galileo,Descartes and Newton. It is that the laws were Designed by God. However, this is no more than a definition of god as the embodiment of the laws of nature ;unless one endows God with some other attributes such as being the god of the old testament . If we consider god as the answer to the first question then the real crunch comes in the fifth question-Are there any exceptions to the laws? Opinions about the answer to the fifth question is quite interesting . Aristotle,the great Greek philosopher clearly mentioned that there can be no exeptions to the laws.But according to the Bibilical view God not only created the laws but also has the power to make changes to those laws ,which contradicts Aristotle. In opposition to the views of Decscartes,according to Bible -by praying one can heal the terminally ill, an enormous cyclone can be just stopped by his signs, premature ends to droughts. In opposition to the views of Decscartes;God has the ability to do any thing in the universe.Even Newton believed in miracles of a sort,he thought that god must be resetting the orbits to avoid the falling of planets into Sun! But there was a rationalist during the time of Napoleon.A scientific law is not a scientific law if it holds when some super natural being decides not to intervene.Here Napolean asked Laplace- How god will fit in to this picture? Laplace replied that- I have not needed that hypothesis.In the same way we also do not need the hypothesis of god and religion;but today religion is made a major point in the hypothesis of the human beings. We can clearly sense that Laplace is a kind of rationalist.,even Albert Einstein is a rationalist, he said that: I believe in Spinozas god, who reveals himself in the lawful harmony of the world, not in a god who concerns himself with the fate and doings of mankind. Indian schools of philosophy:- India sub -continent is having a catholic theories on the God and religion and Above mentioned concepts.(remove this sentence) Different schools of Indian Philsopohy deal the above questions in many different ways. The six orthodox schools of the Indian Philsophy are :- 1.Nyaya,2.Vaishesika,3.Purva mimamasa,4.Uttaara mimasa or vedanta5.Sankahya,6.Yoga were altered in many ways in Ancient India. We do not yet know whether these schools are orthodox or rational;However the concepts which they taught are undoubtedly rational but the crunch comes when these laws are altered in order to protect the religion and god. By the advent of new laws from Kannada,Gautama and many other Philsophers and with the renewed belief in the laws, there were attempts to reconcile these laws along with God. The path of the true philosophy was bifurcated by many religious dogmas in Ancient India and even in the western world. The countries which were the bearers of the torch of discovery, invention, innovation had become calm.The religious dogmas diverted the path of true philosophy and used if for their own selfishness. The quest for knowledge in Ancient India was put off by the religious dogmas from there on great texts literature which are essential for mankind for its progress and development were interpreted in many Unscientific ways. The Great theories like Nyaya-Vaishesika,Astronomy, Mathematics Philosophy, which were developed in India in a course of time were held in very high esteem.If it were allowed to follow its original course unimpeded by the religious dogmas then there might have been be a lot of development In India all the theoeries are somehow or the other attributed to the gods and vedas. But by the advent of the Budhhists,Charvaka,Jain the heteredox schools of the India Philsopohy;there was a big change in the human society but it was again curbed by some religious dogmas in ancient India.Most of the people believe that Nyaya and vaishesika are also the heterodox schools of the indian philosophy. All the orthodox schools of the Indian Philosophy believe in god and Vedas, while Heterodox schools have a rational tendency towards the things. Hence it is clear that each philosopher, scientist, revolutionary, and guru has had a strong craving to change the society of the time to a better one. They have always had a deep insight on the days to come but due to lack of scope many misconceptions have crept into their theories. Now we shall discuss the role of god and religion Role Of God and religion- Day by day we are getting knowledge and we are getting enriched because of it . In the same way each and every text may it be religious or of any other subject should stick totally to recent discoveries and inventions. We know that we get knowledge through our sensory organs. The nerves impulses are carried from each sensory organ to the brain and it is getting processed in our brains. The brain interprets the input from our sensory organs and by that we develop our concepts and develop our own theories ( religions). But there may be difference in which one could perceive the same physical situation, with each employing different fundamental elements and concepts. If all the religions which are developed are totally dependent on the truths ,we are free to follow whichever religion that is most convenient. But this is not happening-different religions teach different things and are based on different concepts. In this sequence of the history of mankind we had found better and better theories(religions). There were gods of love and war, Sun, Earth, Sky, Oceans, Rivers, Rain, Thunder Storms even Earth Quakes and Volcanoes. Ignorance of the people in Ancient time made them to invent gods to seek answers as told before. As we are acurious species ,wherever the answer was not found or finding an answer was difficult a new god was invented and it became as if god came into every aspect of Human life. When the gods were pleased, mankind was treated to good weather, peace and freedom from natural disaster and disease and on the flip side when they are displeased there came drought, war, pestilence and epidemics since the relativity between cause and effect in nature was not in their perception( is beyond their perceptions). The gods became superior and our species was self dragged into the mercy of gods. Hence gods became inscrutable but with Kannada, Gautama and by the thoughts of Buddha about 2600 years ago. The idea arose that nature follows a set of laws and laws and epistemology and the theories of atomicity had came into practice. They developed their system of thought, matter, ways we acquire knowledge, atoms etc. Here it is clear that from the beginning of the mankind till now there have been a number of defintions of god and so many concepts and beliefs were have been developed on god by different scientists philosophers and priests.Some people of the Ancient times didnt develop scientific inquiry in their theories and hence invented false gods and wrong concept based religions. Hence in the 21st century, we the Universsal citizens who belong to the same species Homo Sapiens must enact by assuring the dignity of the Individual and Unity and Integrity of the Universe. Unless and until an(replace an with a)universal Religion and God are established,there cannot be peace in the this universe.I would like to mention one more thing The need of this millennium is human integration with right knowledge about man nature and society. As said by my father All the people on this planet earth should have a Healthy , Happy , Purposeful long life. This is only possible through synchronisation of global religions.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Free Essays - Importance of Feste in Twelfth Night :: Twelfth Night essays

Importance of Feste in Twelfth Night Feste, the amusing clown, plays a most important part in the play. He is able to take on several roles, and is indeed "for all waters"; from serious to comic, learned to nonsensical, the wit or the practical joker; just as the occasion seems to suggest. Because he is a part of both the main and sub plot, Feste is the character, who links both parts of the play together, making Twelfth Night a whole. The clown contributes towards the humourous entertainment of this play through his numerous puns and jokes. He is a source of laughter, not because we are humoured by his "foolery"; for he proves to be no fool at all; but rather because he amuses us with his brilliant wit. Having mastered the art of jesting, Feste is sensitive of his profession, always aware of the circumstances he is in and the appropriateness of this folly. Feste is able to prevent any delusions of grandeur by a reminder that foolishness is a condition common to all mankind whether one is king or servant. It is Malvolio's vanity that convinces Feste to take part in the joke played on the steward. As "Sir Topas", and Malvolio's `prosecutor` Feste attempted to help Malvolio realize that there was "no darkness but ignorance". With Feste's help, we are able to attain a better understanding of the other characters in the play- revealing their true personalities, which are sometimes unseen, not only by us, the audience, but also by the characters themselves. He shows Olivia how unrealistic and excessive her mourning for her brother's death has been, he tells Orsino how foolish he is for languishing in a mood of love-sick melancholy for Olivia and points out how mercurial his personality is, and he makes a fool out of the pompous Malvolio. "Foolery, sir, does walk about the orb like the sun- it shines everywhere" says Feste. Feste, however, never takes sides with any of the characters, and in this way, he becomes a kind of commentator for the play. He is able to examine the characters, revealing the bare truth about them and he unites the main and sub-plot in a similar way.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Children and Youth Essay

The study of children and youth—or childhood studies—involves researchers from diverse disciplines who theorize and conduct research on children and adolescents. Woodhead (2004) aptly explains, Interest in Childhood Studies is for many born out of frustration with the narrow versions of the child offered by traditional academic discourses and methods of inquiry, especially a rejection of the ways psychology, sociology, and anthropology traditionally partition and objectify the child as subject to processes of development, socialization or acculturation. (P. x) sociologists use these four perspectives, childhood scholars trained in other disciplines also use these perspectives. I will then consider the usefulness of childhood studies as an interdisciplinary area of study and present a vision for the future of childhood studies within sociology. CONTRIBUTIONS OF DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO CHILDHOOD STUDIES Historical Approaches to Childhood Studies Historical research informs what the concept of childhood means. Arià ¨s ([1960] 1962) made the first argument that childhood is socially and historically constructed. He did not view it as a natural state defined by biology. By examining works of art dating back 1,000 years, he noted a difference in the rendering of children prior to the 1700s, wherein children were depicted as little adults and not as a distinctive group. In agreement with Arià ¨s, Demos (1970) put forth a similar argument using evidence gathered on the Puritans of the Plymouth Colony in the 1600s, noting that children were not considered a special group with shared needs or status. These researchers asserted that the shift from treating children as small adults to children as valuable individuals to be protected goes hand-in-hand with other societal shifts such as the spread of schooling and the decline of child mortality. While Arià ¨s’s hypothesis has been challenged and criticized by historical research and empirical evidence (see Gittins 2004; Nelson 1994), his ideas have inspired social scientists to study ordinary children, and many studies have been produced as a result. As a dialogue w ith the Since the late 1980s, sociologists have made sizable contributions to the study of children and youth, and the field of childhood studies has become recognized as a legitimate field of academic enquiry. Increasingly, childhood is used as a social position or a conceptual category to study. Like women’s studies, the study of children has emerged as an interdisciplinary field. Researchers of children from established disciplines, such as anthropology, education, history, psychology, and sociology, have found a meeting place in this emergent interdisciplinary field of childhood studies. In the following sections, I will first outline the relative contributions of different approaches to the field of childhood studies. Some approaches find a home within one discipline, while other approaches are used by more than one discipline. Specifically, I will examine approaches outside sociology, such as historical, developmental psychological, and children’s literature, and then I w ill discuss four perspectives used by sociologists, namely the cultural approach, the social structural approach, the demographic approach, and the general socialization approach. While 140 Bryant-45099 Part III.qxd 10/18/2006 7:43 PM Page 141 The Sociology of Children and Youth– †¢ –141 work of Arià ¨s, De Mause ([1976] 1995:4) developed a psychogenic theory of history, which asserted that parentchild relations have evolved to create greater intimacy and higher emotional satisfaction over time. De Mause explained that parent-child relations evolve in a linear fashion and that parent-child relationships change incrementally and, in turn, fuel further historical change. In response to this, Pollock (1983) dismisses the findings of researchers such as Arià ¨s, Demos, and De Mause, who assert the modern or incremental approach to childhood, arguing that â€Å"parents have always valued their children: we should not seize too eagerly upon theories of fundamental change in parental attitudes over time† (p. 17). While Pollock specifically counters the conclusions of Demos on children living in the 1700s in the Plymouth colony, his conclusions respond to all prior research positing that childhood is a modern concept. Historical research documents that the idea of c hildhood emanates from the middle class as members of the middle class first advanced laws to limit child labor and promoted education and protection of children (Kehily 2004). The shift of children from economic to emotional contributors of the family after the seventeenth century took place first among middle-class boys and later became the expectation for all children, regardless of social class or gender (Zelizer 1985). A good example of this middleclass perspective is illustrated in the writing of Mayhew, a social commentator from the nineteenth century (1861, in Kehily 2004), who writes about a disadvantaged eightyear-old street vendor from the working class who has â€Å"lost all childish ways† in the Watercress Girl in London Labour and the London Poor. While Mayhew calls attention to the plight of workingclass children in the mid-nineteenth century, other research (Steedman 1990; Gittins 1988) indicates that it is not until the early twentieth century that the childhood concept is redefined for working-class children in the United Kingdom. Child poverty and ill health were viewed as social problems and resulted in a shift away from economic to increased emotional value of children and altered expectations that children should be protected and educated (Cunningham 1991). The idea of lost or stolen childhood continues to be prominent in popular discussions of childhood (Kehily 2004:3). With this, historical approaches offer a great deal to the field of childhood studies because they allow us to view the concept of childhood as malleable. The childhood concept does not have the same meaning today as it did 300 years ago in a given culture, and it does not have the same meaning from culture to culture or even across social classes during a historical moment. Most historical research focuses on Western forms of childhood, yet these constructs may be useful for understanding certain aspects of childhood in non-Western contexts, especially when similar socioeconomic factors, such as industrialization, and a shift from an agrarian to a cash economy, may frame conditions. Ideas about how childhood is bound by culture, political economy, and epoch continue to be played out today in many non-Western contexts. For example, Hollos (2002) found that a new partnership family type emerged alongside the lineage-based system as a small Tanzanian community underwent a shift from subsistence agriculture with hoe cultivation to wage labor. These family types exhibited two distinct parental perspectives on what childhood should be and how children should spend their time. Partnership families emerging with a cash economy tend to view their children as a means of enjoyment and pleasure, whereas lineage-based families typically see their children as necessary for labor needs in the near term and as investments and old-age insurance in the long term. In this way, historical perspectives have the potential to inform contemporary cultural and social constructive theories on children and childhood studies. The next step is to move beyond Arià ¨s and the dialogue he cre ated to address the persistence of current social issues that involve children such as child poverty, child labor, and disparities across childhoods worldwide (see Cunningham 1991). Developmental Psychological Approaches to Childhood Studies Sully’s Studies of Childhood (Sully [1895] 2000, quoted in Woodhead 2003) notes, â€Å"We now speak of the beginning of a careful and methodological investigation of child nature.† By the early twentieth century, developmental psychology became the dominant paradigm for studying children (Woodhead 2003). Developmental psychology has studied and marked the stages and transitions of Western childhood. Piaget’s (1926) model of developmental stages stands as the foundation. Within the developmental psychology framework, children are adults in training and their age is linked to physical and cognitive developments. Children travel a developmental path taking them in due time to a state of being adult members of the society in which they live (Kehily 2004). Children are therefore viewed as learners with potential at a certain position or stage in a journey to child to an adult status (Verhellen 1997; Walkerdine 2004). Social and cultural researchers have critiqued the developmental psychological approach, largely faulting its treatment of children as potential subjects who can only be understood along the child-to-adult continuum (Buckingham 2000; Castenada 2002; James and Prout [1990] 1997; Jenks 2004; Lee 2001; Stainton Rogers et al. 1991). Qvortrup (1994) notes that developmental psychology frames children as human becomings rather than human beings. Adding to this, Walkerdine (2004) suggests that while psychology is useful in understanding children, this usefulness may be bound to Western democratic societies at a specific historical moment. Still, Lee (2001) cautions that we should not give developmental psychology a wholesale toss, noting, â€Å"What could growing up mean once we have distanced ourselves Bryant-45099 Part III.qxd 10/18/2006 7:43 PM Page 142 142– †¢ –THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE LIFE COURSE from the dominant frameworks’ account of socialization and development?† (p. 54). Likewise, Kehily (2004) notes that considering differences between sociology and developmental psychology is useful, yet it is also useful to consider what is shared or complementary across the two. Developmental psychologists have not reached consensus on the relative importance of physical, psychological, social, and cultural factors in shaping children’s development (Boocock and Scott 2005). Gittins (1988:22) urges social scientists studying children to bear in mind the nature versus nurture debate. Bruner (2000) explains that both biological and social factors are important because babies are born with start-up knowledge, which they then add and amend with life experiences. Concurring with this approach, Chomsky (1996) explains that a child’s biological makeup is â€Å"awakened by experience† and â€Å"sharpened and enriched† through interactions with other h umans and objects. Walkerdine (2004) considers developmental psychology as limited because of its deterministic trajectory and sociology as limited because of its omission of psychological factors alongside sociological or cultural factors. Walkerdine (2004) points to several developmental psychological approaches to consider the social production of children as subjects, namely situated learning (Cole and Scribner 1990; Haraway 1991), acquiring knowledge through practice or apprenticeship (Lave and Wenger 1991), actor network theory (Law and Moser 2002), and the idea of assemblages as children learn to fill a child role in society (Deleuze and Guattari 1988). These approaches allow the researcher to include children’s internal and external learning practices and processes. As such, developmental psychology can continue to contribute to childhood studies. In the 1990s, sociologists helped cull and identify useful concepts and tools for childhood studies by criticizing develop mental psychology. As the field of childhood studies continues to grow into a defined and recognized discipline, useful tools and concepts from developmental psychology should be included. Likewise, Woodhead (2003) asserts that several concepts and tools from developmental psychology— notably scaffolding, zone of proximal development, guided participation, cultural tools, communities of practice—are also relevant for childhood studies (see Lave and Wenger 1991; Mercer 1995; Rogoff 1990; Wood 1988). Psychologists’ concern with the individual child can complement sociological research that considers children as they interact within their environment. worlds are created. Hunt (2004) notes that children’s literature may be unreliable for understanding childhood because children’s books typically reflect the aspirations of adults for children of a particular epoch. Hunt (2004) holds however that children’s literature remains a meeting place for adults and children where different visions of childhood can be entertained and negotiated. In agreement with historical research on the concept of childhood, children’s books were first produced for middle-class children and had moralizing purposes. Later, children’s books were produced for all children, filled with middleclass values to be spread to all. There is agreement and disagreement on the definition of childhood when examining the children’s literature of different time periods and different cultures. For example, several books of the 1950s and 1960s—including The Borrowers, Tom’s Midnight Garden, and The Wolves of Willoughby C hase—depicted adults looking back while children are looking forward (Hunt 2004). Likewise, Spufford (2002:18) notes that the 1960s and 1970s produced a second golden age of children’s literature that presented a coherent, agreed-on idea of childhood. Furthermore, an examination of children’s literature indicates different childhoods were being offered to children in the United States and Britain during the nineteenth century. British children were depicted as being restrained, while American children were described as independent and having boundless opportunity (Hunt 2004). In this way, culture and children’s material world coalesce to offer very different outlooks on life to children. The goal of books may change, from moralizing to idealistic, yet across epochs and cultures they teach children acceptable roles, rules, and expectations. Children’s literature is a powerful platform of interaction wherein children and adults can come together to d iscuss and negotiate childhood. Cultural and Social Construction Approaches to Childhood Studies Anthropological cultural studies have laid important groundwork for research on children, and sociologists have extended these initial boundaries to develop a social construction of childhood. Anthropological research (Opie and Opie 1969) first noted that children should be recognized as an autonomous community free of adult concerns and filled with its own stories, rules, rituals, and social norms. Sociologists then have used the social construction approach, which draws on social interaction theory, to include children’s agency and daily activities to interpret children’s lives (see James and Prout [1990] 1997; Jenks 2004; Maybin and Woodhead 2003; Qvortrup 1993; Stainton Rogers et al. 1991; Woodhead 1999). Childhood is viewed as a social phenomenon (Qvortrup 1994). With this perspective, meaning is interpreted through the experiences of children and the networks within which Children’s Literature as an Approach to Childhood Studies Childhood as a separate stage of life is portrayed in children’s books, and the medium of books represents a substantial part of the material culture of childhood. Books may be viewed as a window onto children’s lives and a useful tool for comprehending how and why children’s Bryant-45099 Part III.qxd 10/18/2006 7:43 PM Page 143 The Sociology of Children and Youth– †¢ –143 they are embedded (Corsaro 1988). Researchers generally use ethnographic methods to attain reflexivity and include children’s voices. In this section, I will first discuss the social constructivist approach of childhood research in two areas, children’s lives within institutional settings such as day care centers and schools, and children’s worlds as they are constructed through material culture. Evidence suggests that young children actively add meaning and create peer cultures within institutional settings. For example, observations of toddler peer groups show preferences for sex emerge by two years of age and race can be distinguished by three years of age (Thompson, Grace, and Cohen 2001; Van Ausdale and Feagin 2001). Research also indicates that play builds on itself and across playgroups or peer groups. Even when the composition of children’s groups changes, children develop rules and rituals that regulate the continuation of the play activity as well as who may join an existing group. Knowledge is sustained within the peer group even when there is fluctuation. School-based studies (see Adler and Adler 1988; Corsaro 1988; Hardman 1973; LaReau 2002; Thorne 1993; Van Ausdale and Feagan) have added a great deal to our understandings of childh ood. Stephens (1995) examined pictures drawn by Sami School children of Norway to learn how the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster and its nuclear fallout affected their lives. The children expressed themselves through their drawings to show how the depleted environment affected their health, diet, work, daily routines, and cultural identity. Van Ausdale and Feagan (2001) explain how racism is created among preschool children’s play patterns and speak. They find that children experiment and learn from one another how to identify with their race and learn the privileges and behaviors of their race in comparison with other races. Using participant observation of children in a primary school setting, Hardman (1973) advanced the idea that children should be studied in their own right and treated as having agency. She found that children represent one level of a society’s beliefs, values, and social interactions. The children’s level interacts as muted voices with other levels of society’s beliefs, values, and social interactions, shaping them and being shaped by them (Hardman 1973). Corsaro (1988) used participant observations of chi ldren at play in a nursery school setting to augment Hardman’s idea of a children’s level. He observed and described children as active makers of meaning through social interaction. Likewise, Corsaro and Eder (1990) conceptualize children as observing the adult world but using elements of it to create a unique child culture. A few studies (see Peer Power by Adler and Adler 1988 and Gender Play by Thorne 1993) show how the cultural world of children creates a stratification structure similar to that of the adult world in a way that makes sense for children. Thorne’s (1993) study of children’s culture is set in an elementary school setting, wherein children have little say in making the rules and structure. Still, she finds children create meaning through playground games that use pollution rituals to reconstruct larger social patterns of inequality as they occur through gender, social class, and race (Thorne 1993:75). Similarly, other studies show how behaviors within peer cultures—such as racism, masculinity, or sexism (see Frosh, Phoenix, and Pattman 2002; Hey 1997; James, Jenks, and Prout 1998) and physical and emotional abuse (Ambert 1995)—are taught and negotiated within children’s peer groups. In addition, childhood can be interpreted through the material makeup of children’s worlds, generally taking the form of toys (see Lamb 2001; Reynolds 1989; Zelizer 2002). Zelizer (2002) argues that children are producers, consumers, and distributors. Lamb (2001) explains that children use Barbie dolls to share and communicate sexual knowledge within a peer group producing a secretive child culture. Cook (2004) contends that the concept of child has been constructed through the m arket. Through a social history of the children’s clothing industry, Cook explains how childhood became associated with commodities. He contends that childhood began to be commodified with the publication of the first children’s clothing trade journal in 1917. By the early 1960s, the child had become a legitimate consumer with its own needs and motivations. The consuming child has over time been provided a separate children’s clothing department stratified by age and gender. As in Cook’s thesis, others (e.g., Buckingham 2004; Jing 2000; Postman 1982) provide evidence to add support to the idea that children’s consumption defines childhood. Jing (2000) explains how the marketing of snack foods and fast foods to children has dramatically affected childhood in China. Likewise, television (Postman 1982) and computers (Buckingham 2004) reshape what we think of as childhood. Children are argued to have a reversed power relationship with adults in terms o f computers because children are more comfortable with this technology (Tapscott 1998). In addition, access to the Internet has created a new space for peer culture that is quite separate from adults. Through chat rooms and e-mail, children can communicate and share information among peers without face-to-face interaction. As a result, the stage on which children’s culture is created is altered. Social Structural Approaches to Childhood Studies Social structural approaches to childhood studies can be divided into two areas, those that distinguish children’s experience by age status and those that distinguish children’s experience by generational status. Because age is the primary criterion for defining childhood, sociologists who study children have found aging and life course theories that focus on generation to be useful. Thorne (1993) argues for the use of age and gender constructs in understanding children’s lives as well as considering Bryant-45099 Part III.qxd 10/18/2006 7:43 PM Page 144 144– †¢ –THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE LIFE COURSE children as social agents. Therefore, it is how children actively construct their worlds as a response to the constraints of age and gender. Passuth (1987) asserts that age is the salient factor for understanding childhood based on her study of how children 5 to 10 years old define themselves as little and big kids in a summer camp setting. Passuth found that age was more important than other stratification markers such as race, social class, and gender. Likewise, Bass (2004) finds that children are active agents but also that age should be considered first as it may structure the opportunities open to children who work in an open market in sub-Saharan Africa; however, other secondary factors such as economic status and gender also structure the life chances of these children. Studies based on children in the United States suggest that age should be considered along with race, gender, and social class to explain how children negotiate power and prestige within their peer groups (Goodwin 1990; Scott 2002). For other sociologists, generation provides the most useful concept to explain the lives of children (Mayall 2000:120). Other researchers (Alanen 2001; Qvortrup 2000) assert that generational relationships are more meaningful than analyses focusing on gender, social class, or ethnicity. While the concept of childhood is not universal, the dichotomy of adult and child is universal and differentiated by age status. This age status patterns differential power relations wherein adults have more power than children and adults typically regulate children’s lives. Childhood is produced as a response to the power of adults over children even when children are viewed as actively shaping their childhoods (Walkerdine 2004). Adults write children’s books, create children’s toys and activities, and often speak on behalf of children (e.g., the law). In this way, the generational divide and unequal authority between adults and children define childhood. Mayall (2002) uses the generational approach to explain how children contribute to social interaction through their position in the larger social order, wherein they hold a child status. The perspective of children remains meaningful even through the disadvantaged power relationship they hold vis-à  -vis adults in the larger social order. It can therefore become a balancing act between considering structural factors or the agency of children in understanding childhood. The life course perspective holds that individuals of each generation will experience life in a unique way because these individuals share a particular epoch, political economy, and sociocultural context. Foner (1978) explains, â€Å"Each cohort bears the stamp of the historical context through which it flows [so that] no two cohorts age in exactly the same way† (p. 343). For example, those who entered adulthood during the Depression have different work, educational, and family experiences compared with individuals who entered adulthood during the affluent 1950s. Those of each cohort face the same larger social and political milieu and therefore may develop similar attitudes. The social structural child posits that childhood may be identified structurally by societal factors that are larger than age status but help create age status in a childhood process (Qvortrup 1994). Children can be treated by researchers as having the same standing as adult research subjects but also may be handled differently based on features of the social structure. The resulting social structural child has a set of u niversal traits that are related to the institutional structure of societies (Qvortrup 1993). Changes in social norms or values regarding children are tied to universal traits as well as related to the social institutions within a particular society. Demographic Approaches to Childhood Studies Much of American sociology takes a top-down approach to the study of children and views children as being interlinked with the larger family structure. It is in this vein that family instability leading to divorce, family poverty, and family employment may affect children’s experiences. For example, Hernandez (1993) examines the American family using U.S. Census data from the twentieth century and notes a series of revolutions in the family—such as in decreased family size and the emergence of the two-earner family—that in turn affected children’s well-being and childhood experiences. Children from smaller families and higher incomes typically attain more education and take higher-paid employment. Hernandez (1993) contends that mothers’ increased participation in work outside the home led to a labor force revolution, which in turn initiated a child care revolution, as the proportion of preschoolers with two working parents increased from 13 percent in 1940 to 50 percent in 1987. More recent data indicate that about 70 percent of the mothers of preschoolers work outside the home (U.S. Bureau of the Census 2002). This child care revolution changes the structure of childhood for most American children. Time diary data indicate that the amount of children’s household chores increased from 1981 to 1997 (Hofferth and Sandberg 2001). Lee, Schneider, and Waite (2003) further note that when mothers work in the United States, children do more than their fathers to make up for the household labor gap caused when mothers work. Hence, expectations for children and childhood are altered because of a larger family framework of considerations and expectations. Family life structures children’s well-being. When marriages break up, there are real consequences in terms of transitions and loss of income that children experience. The structural effects on children of living in smaller, more diverse, and less stable families are still being investigated. Moore, Jeki elek, and Emig (2002) assert that family structure does matter in children’s lives and that children fare better in families headed by two biological, married parents in a low-conflict marriage. Some research indicates that financial support from fathers after a divorce is low (Crowell and Leaper 1994). Coontz (1997) maintains that divorce and single parenthood generally exacerbate preexisting financial uncertainty. These impoverished conditions may diminish children’s physical and emotional Bryant-45099 Part III.qxd 10/18/2006 7:43 PM Page 145 The Sociology of Children and Youth– †¢ –145 development and adversely affect school performance and social behaviors. However, this is not in all cases. Research (Cherlin et al. 1991) shows that children of separated or divorced families have usually experienced parental conflict and behavioral and educational problems before the family broke up. Hernandez (1993) suggests that the parental conflict and not the divorce or separation may provide more insight into children’s disadvantages. Hetherington and Kelly (2002) found that about three-fourths of children whose parents divorced adjusted within six years and ranked the same on behavioral and educational outcomes as children from intact families. Another study (Smart, Neale, and Wade 2001) finds positive attributes of children of divorce as children reported that they were more independent than friends who had not experienced divorce. The demographic study of children has taken place predominantly from the policy or public family vantage point with the assumption that there are consequences for children. Childhoods are typically framed with a perspective that views children’s worlds as being derivative of larger social forces and structures. Very little agency is noted or measured in these studies. While the demographic approach does not offer detailed explanation like research put forth by social constructivist childhood scholars (see James and Prout 1990), this approach provides a valuable perspective for framing and interpreting children’s lives. Socialization Approaches to Childhood Studies Research indicates that socialization may affect both children and parents. Developmental psychology allows us to consider how children are affected by the socialization provided by parents, and more recent research put forth by psychologists and sociologists suggests that this exchange of information may be a two-way process. LaReau (2002) puts forth a more traditional model of socialization as she details how American families of different races and classes provide different childhoods for their children. In her research, the focus is on how children and parents actively construct childhood even as they are possibly constrained by race and class. She found evidence for two types of child rearing, concerted cultivation among middle- and upper-middle-class children, and the emergence of natural growth among working- and lower-class children. LaReau’s study describes the process that puts lower- and higher-class children on different roads in childhood that translate into vastl y different opportunities in adulthood. Rossi and Rossi (1990) studied parent-child relationships across the life course and found that parents shape their children as well as their grandchildren through parenting styles, shared genes, social status, and belief systems. Alwin (2001) asserts that while rearing children is both a public and private matter, the daily teaching of children the rules and roles in society largely falls to parents. Furthermore, Alwin (2001) explains how American parental expectations for their children have changed over the last half-century, noting an increased emphasis on self-discipline through children’s activities that help develop autonomy and self-reliance. Zinnecker (2001) notes a parallel trend in Europe toward individualism and negotiation, and away from coercion in parenting styles. In contrast, Ambert’s (1992) The Effect of Children on Parents questions the assumptions of the socialization perspective and posits that socialization is a two-way process. Ambert argues that having children can influence one’s health, income, career opportunities, values and attitudes, feelings of control, life plans, and the quality of interpersonal relations. She questions the causality of certain problematic children’s behaviors, such as clinginess among some young children or frequent crying among premature babies. Ambert contends that children’s behavior socializes parents in a patterned way, which agrees with the sentiment of de Winter (1997) regarding autistic children and that Skolnick (1978) regarding harsh child-rearing methods. Likewise, psychologist Harris (1998) argues that the parental nurture or socialization fails to ground the direction of causation with empirical data. She explains that parenting styles are the effect of a child’s temperament and that parents’ socialization has little influence compared with other influences such as heredity and children’s peer groups. Harris’s approach, known as group socialization theory, posits that after controlling for differences in heredity, little variance can be explained by children’s socialization in the home environment. Harris provides evidence that most children develop one behavioral system that they use at home and a different behavioral system for use elsewhere by middle childhood. Group socialization theory can then explain why immigrant children learn one language in the home and another language outside the home, and their native language is the one they speak with their peers (Harris 1998). Likewise, other studies (Galinski 1999; Smart et al. 2001) find evidence that children play a supportive role and nurture their parents. In a parallel but opposing direction, other studies suggest that having children negatively affects parents’ lifestyles and standards of living (Boocock 1976) and disproportionately and negatively affects women’s career and income potentials (Cri ttenden 2001). Indeed, research indicates that socialization may affect both children and parents. While most research concentrates on the socialization of children by parents and societal institutions, more research should focus on the socialization of parents. In this way, children may be viewed as affecting the worlds of their parents, which in turn may affect children. Interdisciplinary Involvement and Implications Childhood research benefits from the involvement of a diverse range of disciplines. On the surface these approaches appear to have disagreement in terms of methods and theoretical underpinnings, yet these approaches challenge more traditional disciplines such as sociology, psychology, and anthropology to consider what best interprets children’s lives. In some cases, the interaction across Bryant-45099 Part III.qxd 10/18/2006 7:43 PM Page 146 146– †¢ –THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE LIFE COURSE disciplines creates new approaches, such as those of sociologists who use general socialization theory from developmental psychology. Similarly, historical research on the value of children being tied to a certain epoch with a specific level of political economy can inform the valuation of children and their labor in poorer countries around the globe today. There is a need for continued interdisciplinary collaboration, and thought is being given to how children and childhood studies could emerge as a recognized interdisciplinary field of inquiry. Woodhead (2003) offers three models for interdisciplinary effort for advancing the study of children and childhoods: (1) a clearinghouse model, (2) a pick ‘n’ mix model, and (3) a rebranding model. The clearinghouse model (Woodhead 2003) would include all studies of children and childhood, all research questions and methodologies, and all disciplines that are interested. This clearinghouse model would view different approaches t o the study of children for their complementary value and would encourage researchers to ask â€Å"different but equally valid questions† (James et al. 1998:188). The pick ‘n’ mix model (Woodhead 2003) envisions that an array of child-centered approaches would be selectively included in the study of children. If this were to happen, the process of selection could complicate and hamper the field of childhood studies in general. Fences may be useful in terms of demarcating the path for childhood scholars but also may obstruct the vista on the other side. The rebranding model (Woodhead 2003) would involve researchers collaborating across disciplines on research involving children while informing and remaining housed within more traditional disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. In this scenario, children and childhood scholars remain within sociology while also being committed to interdisciplinary involvement. This scenario has served to strengthen sociological research in general. For example, James and Prout (1990) coined the term sociological study of childhood, and later James et al. (1998) developed the con cept of sociological child. More recently, Mayall (2002) has suggested the use of the term sociology of childhood to move children and childhood studies to a more central place within sociology. In turn, this strengthens children and childhood studies across disciplines by forging a place for children in the traditional discipline. The field of interdisciplinary childhood studies has the potential to widen its reach by creating constituencies across older disciplines. Additionally, childhood studies can learn from the development experience of other interdisciplinary fields such as women’s studies or gerontology. Oakley (1994:13) asserts the shared concerns across the academic study of women and children because women and children are socially linked and represent social minority groups. In a similar vein, Bluebond-Langner (2000) notes a parallel in scholarly potential for childhood studies of the magnitude of women’s studies, predicting that childhood studies will aff ect the twenty-first century in much the same way as women’s studies has the twentieth century. Weighing the contributions across disciplines, it is clear that developmental psychology has laid the groundwork for the field of childhood studies, yet the resulting conversation across scholars and disciplines has produced a field that is much greater than the contributions of any one contributing discipline. Therefore, childhood scholars have much to gain through conversation and collaboration. CONSIDERING SOCIOLOGY AND CHILDHOOD STUDIES Within sociology, scholars approach the study of children in many ways. Some sociologists take a strict social constructivist approach, while others meld this approach to a prism that considers social structures that are imposed on children. Some sociologists focus on demographic change, while others continue to focus on aspects of socialization as childhoods are constructed through forces such as consumer goods, child labor, children’s rights, and public policy. All these scholars add to the research vitality and breadth of childhood studies. In addition, children and childhood studies research centers, degree programs, and courses began to be established in the 1990s, most of which have benefited from the contributions of sociologists and the theories and methods of sociology. Childhood studies gained firm ground in 1992 in the United States when members of the American Sociological Association (ASA) formed the Section on the Sociology of Children. Later, the section name wa s changed to the Section on the Sociology of Children and Youth to promote inclusiveness with scholars who research the lives of adolescents. In addition to including adolescents, American sociologists are also explicitly open to all methods and theories that focus on children. The agenda of the Children and Youth Section has been furthered by its members’ initiation and continued publication of the annual volume Sociological Studies of Children since 1986. In agreement with the ASA section name addition, the volume recently augmented the volume name with and Youth and became formalized as the annual volume of ASA Children and Youth Section. The volume was initially developed and edited by Patricia and Peter Adler and later edited by Nancy Mandell, David Kinney, and Katherine Brown Rosier. Outside the United States, the study of children by sociologists has gained considerable ground through the International Sociological Association Research Group 53 on Childhood, which was established in 1994. Two successful international journals, Childhood and Children and Society, promote scholarly research on children from many disciplines and approaches. In particular, British childhood researchers have brought considerable steam to the development of childhood studies through curriculum development. Specifically, childhood researchers wrote four introductory textbooks published by Wiley for a target Bryant-45099 Part III.qxd 10/18/2006 7:43 PM Page 147 The Sociology of Children and Youth– †¢ –147 class on childhood offered by the Open University in 2003. The books are Understanding Childhood by Woodhead and Montgomery (2003), Childhoods in Context by Maybin and Woodhead (2003), Children’s Cultural Worlds by Kehily and Swann (2003), and Changing Childhoods by Montgomery, Burr, and Woodhead (2003). The relationship between the discipline of sociology and childhood studies appears to be symbiotic. Even as sociologists assert that the study of children is its own field, this does not preclude the development of childhood studies across disciplinary boundaries. Sociologists capture the social position or status of children and have the methods for examining how childhood is socially constructed or situated within a given society. Sociologists can also continue to find common ground with other childhood scholars from other disciplines to develop better methods and refine theories that explain children’s lives. Advances in the interdisciplinary field of childhood studi es serves to strengthen the research of sociologists who focus their work on children. Likewise, sociological challenges to the interdisciplinary field of childhood studies since the 1990s have provided useful points of critique and improvement to the study of children’s behavior and children’s lives. CURRENT AND FUTURE RESEARCH: SOCIAL POLICY AND CHILDREN’S RIGHTS Current and future research on children falls into two main areas, social policy and children’s rights. Arguably, there is some overlap between these two large themes. Indeed, Stainton Rogers (2004) maintains that social policy is motivated by a concern for children, yet children have very little to no political or legal voice. Children do not vote or decide what is in their best interests or what children’s rights are. Social policy requires us to consider the intersection of children as dependents or not yet adults and children as having certain rights. It has previously been noted that children are citizens and should be treated as citizens but with their own concerns (James and Prout 1997), yet there is still much to be clarified. Public policy can be used to improve the lives of children. Research has established that poverty matters in the lives of children, as measured in child well-being indicators, and public policies have been enacted to help families rise out of poverty (Hernandez 1993). Research on the impact of increased income after a casino opened on a Cherokee reservation indicates that Native-American children who were raised out of poverty had a decreased incidence of behavior disorders (Costello et al. 2003). At other times, public policies affect children as a byproduct or consequence. One example is the 1996 Welfare Reform Law (or PRWORA), which made work mandatory for able-bodied, American adults and put time limits of five years and a day on receiving public assistance. Still, much is to be learned as to the effect, if any, of this legislation on children (Bass and Mosley 2001; Casper and Bianchi 2002). In addition to income, public policy shapes the experience of family life by recognizing some forms while ignoring others. A substantial number of children will experience many family structures and environments as they pass through childhood, regardless of whether the government legitimates all these forms (Clarke 1996). Likewise, examining children’s experiences in various family forms is a useful area of current and future study. Children’s rights can be examined in terms of protecting children from an adult vantage point or in terms of providing children civil rights (or having a legal voice). The view of protecting children is a top-down approach positing that children are immature, and so legal protections should be accorded to keep children safe from harm and abuse and offer children a basic level of developmental opportunities. In contrast, the civil rights approach asserts that children have the right to participate fully in decisions that may affect them and should be allowed the same freedoms of other citizens (Landsdown 1994; Saporiti et al. 2005). In addition, the framing of children’s rights takes different forms in richer and poorer countries around the globe. For richer countries, granting children rights may involve allowing children civil and political voice, whereas in poorer countries, basic human rights bear out as more important. Child labor is an issue that has been examined in terms of the right of children to learn and be developed and the right of children to provide for oneself (see Bass 2004; Neiwenhuys 1994; Zelizer 1985). Future studies wil l also need to consider the relationship between children’s rights as children become study subjects. Innovative approaches are being used to include children’s voices and input in the research process (Leonard 2005), yet there is still much to be done in this area in terms of developing methodologies that allow children to participate in the research process. Indeed, incorporating children in the research process is a next logical step for childhood studies. However, childhood scholars are adults and therefore not on an equal footing with children (Fine and Sandstrom 1988). Furthermore, there is momentum to include children’s perspectives in the research process at the same time that there is a growing concern for children’s well-being, which may be adversely affected by their participation as subjects in the research process. Future research on children should focus on the children’s issues through social policies yet also consider childrenâ€⠄¢s rights in tandem or as follow-up studies. It is generally the matter of course to take children or youth as a definitive given and then seek to solve their problems or create policies for them. Future research should focus on practical children’s issues and use empirical research projects to increase our knowledge of the nature of childhood. The last 15 years provide evidence to support the idea that childhood researchers should continue to bridge disciplines and even continents to find common ground.